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  • de Kaminski, Marcin, et al. (författare)
  • Studying Norms and Social Change in a Digital Age: Identifying and Understanding a Multidimensional Gap Problem
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Social and Legal Norms: Towards a Socio-legal Understanding of Normativity. - Ashgate Publishing. - 9781409453437 ; s. 309-330
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fact that the debate concerning copyright in a digital society has been both intense and filled with polemic conflicts ever since the late 1990s makes it clear that it is a most complicated issue to solve, or even grasp. Basically, both the legal and societal discussion and development are explicitly dependent on a greater understanding of the on-going processes surrounding copyright. This presents a well-suited point of departure for research such as the one conducted within the Cybernorms research group – both in terms of providing valuable insights into the field of sociology of law when it comes to understanding how to relate to the framework provided by digitalization in general and the Internet in particular, and in terms of providing more accurate knowledge and toolsets to legislators in related fields.
  • Larsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Law, Norms, Piracy and Online Anonymity – Practices of de-identification in the global file sharing community
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing: Special Issue on Digital Piracy. - Emerald. - 2040-7130. ; 6:4, s. 260-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand online anonymity in the global file-sharing community in the context of social norms and copyright law. The study describes the respondents in terms of use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) or similar services with respect to age, gender, geographical location, as well as analysing the correlation with file-sharing frequencies. Design/methodology/approach This study, to a large extent, collected descriptive data through a web-based survey. This was carried out in collaboration with the BitTorrent tracker The Pirate Bay (TPB), which allowed us to link the survey from the main logo of their site. In 72 hours, we received over 75,000 responses, providing the opportunity to compare use of anonymity services with factors of age, geographical region, file-sharing frequency, etc. Findings Overall, 17.8 per cent of the respondents used a VPN or similar service (free or paid). A core of high-frequency uploaders is more inclined to use VPNs or similar services than the average file sharer. Online anonymity practices in the file-sharing community depend on how legal and social norms correlate (more enforcement means more anonymity). Research limitations/implications The web-based survey was in English and mainly attracted visitors on The Pirate Bay’s web site. This means that it is likely that those who do not have the language skills necessary were excluded from the survey. Practical implications This study adds to the knowledge of online anonymity practices in terms of traceability and identification, and therefore describes some of the conditions for legal enforcement in a digital environment. Social implications This study adds to the knowledge of how the Internet is changing in terms of a polarization between stronger means of legally enforced identification and a growing awareness of how to be more untraceable. Originality/value The scale of the survey, with over 75,000 respondents from most parts of the world, has likely not been seen before on this topic. The descriptive study of anonymity practices in the global file-sharing community is therefore likely unique.
  • Rönkkö, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Inside Information 2 − Usability and User Research
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report is a follow up to the Inside Information – Usability and User Research at UIQ Technology report that was made available in October 2006. The initial report was written from an industrial point of view aimed to market UIQ Technology through the demonstration of the UIQ usability and user research philosophy. UIQ Technology Usability Metrics (UTUM) was important result here. UTUM was considered an extremely cost-effective method for keeping in focus what is important for users and handset makers. It was a tool for guiding development decisions as well as for validating the worthiness of design concepts. The two parts in UTUM was perceived by the company as an innovation in their software development practice. The first part was the relationship to users and attitude to their participation in the design process. The second part was how the company immediately and directly incorporated this usability understanding into the software development process. UTUM, together with other usability methods and results presented in this report, have been produced in an action research manner. Due to the closure of the company, the main author of the 2006 report, and the same researchers who also supported the writing of the initial report, decided to produce a follow-up and closure version of the initial report; as a way to summarize the results from the academic and industrial cooperation. In this updated version, eight years of joint action research and cooperative method development surrounding usability and user research is concluded.
  • Rönkkö, Kari (författare)
  • Making Methods Work in Software Engineering
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The software engineering community is concerned with improvements in existing methods and development of new and better methods. The research approaches applied to take on this challenge have hitherto focused heavily on the formal and specifying aspect of the method. This has been done for good reasons, because formalizations are the means in software projects to predict, plan, and regulate the development efforts. As formalizations have been successfully developed new challenges have been recognized. The human and social role in software development has been identified as the next area that needs to be addressed. Organizational problems need to be solved if continued progress is to be made in the field. The social element is today a little explored area in software engineering. Following with the increased interest in the social element it has been identified a need of new research approaches suitable for the study of human behaviour. The one sided focus on formalizations has had the consequence that concepts and explanation models available in the community are one sided related in method discourses. Definition of method is little explored in the software engineering community. In relation to identified definitions of method the social appears to blurring. Today the software engineering community lacks powerful concepts and explanation models explaining the social element. This thesis approaches the understanding of the social element in software engineering by applying ethnomethodologically informed ethnography and ethnography. It is demonstrated how the ethnographic inquiry contributes to software engineering. Ethnography is also combined with an industrial cooperative method development approach. The results presented demonstrate how industrial external and internal socio political contingencies both hindered a method implementation, as well as solved what the method was targeted to do. It is also presented how project members’ method deployment - as a social achievement is played out in practice. In relation to this latter contribution it is provided a conceptual apparatus and explanation model borrowed from social science, The Documentary method of interpretation. This model addresses core features in the social element from a natural language point of view that is of importance in method engineering. This model provides a coherent complement to an existing method definition emphasizing formalizations. This explanation model has also constituted the underpinning in research methodology that made possible the concrete study results.
  • Rönkkö, Kari (författare)
  • Software Practice from the Inside
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Empirical methodologies have recently attracted increasing attention from the broader software engineering community. In particular, organisational issues and the human role in software development have been addressed. Qualitative research approaches have been identified as necessary for understanding human nature. One qualitative methodology which has become increasingly recognised in the software engineering community is ethnography. It is also the qualitative approach that is addressed in this thesis, i.e. ethnography in relation to software engineering. Ethnography emphasises the members point of view in an effort to understand the organisation of a social, cultural and technical setting. Until now, only a handful of ethnographic studies focusing on software engineering have been carried out in accordance with the original conception of ethnography; these studies have traditionally been performed by sociologists. The understanding and application of ethnography by software engineers differ from that of sociologists as it gives up the studied people's point of view in the analysis of data. The thesis is based on two independent ethnographic studies where the ‘inside’ perspective which complies with the original understanding of the methodology is applied. Using these examples as a basis, the relation between ethnography and software engineering research is explored. The objective of this thesis is to promote ‘ethnographic knowledge’ by giving an overview of ethnographic work within software engineering, presenting an original understanding of ethnography, comparing software engineers' understanding of ethnography with the original understanding of ethnography, demonstrating how the different implicit research attitudes of ethnographers and software engineers produce different research discourses, and finally pointing to an opportunity to combine ethnography, which contributes an ‘inside perspective’, with software engineering's need for constant improvement.
  • Social Innovation in a Digital Context.
  • 2014
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • This book summarizes the project work of the very first batch of participants of Lund University’s international Social Innovation in a Digital Context programme, financed by the Swedish Institute. The programme targets human rights activists in a position from which they can initiate projects of change in their home countries in the area of social innovation. During the programme all participants initiate a change project using the knowledge and skills obtained during the programme and using digital technology. This book contains reports on projects aimed at creating sociopolitical improvement in Algeria, Gaza, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Tunisia.
  • Tan, Jia, et al. (författare)
  • A framework for software usability & user experience measurement in mobile industry
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mobile industry faces challenges in designing software usability and user experience (UX) measurement instruments. The major difficulties arise due to: 1) diversity of definitions and terminology used for usability and UX aspects and attributes, which lead to inconsistencies, and 2) lack of a taxonomy for these attributes with links to well-defined measures in the literature. In this paper, we present a framework to support mobile industry to overcome these challenges. We first unified the terminology and definitions for usability and UX attributes in the literature. Then, we created taxonomy of attributes and sub-attributes. By using the well-known Goal Question Metric (GQM) approach, we identified a comprehensive set of questions and measures for each attribute that could be used as a basis for developing measurement instruments. The framework was evaluated through a case study conducted in a usability research, development and consultancy company for mobile industry in Sweden.
  • Winter, Jeff, et al. (författare)
  • Developing Quality through Measuring Usability--The UTUM Test Package
  • 2007
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Artikeln presenterar ett sätt att bygga in användningskvalité i mjukvara och mjukvaruprocesser, genom att använda ett testpaket för mobiltelefoner. Testpaketet är ett resultat av ett långt samarbete mellan industrin och akademin. Den påvisar användbarhet med hjälp av mätningar av användarhetsaspekter, som kompletteras med testledarens subjektiva bedömning. Artikeln är baserad på tester som har utförts parallelt i två länder. Vi har funnit att testet har fungerat i en komplicerad industriell miljö med komplicerade förhållanden mellan kunder, partners och slutanvändare. Användbarhet, mätningar, kvalité, UTUM
  • Winter, Jeff, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying organizational barriers-A case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software. - Elsevier. - 0164-1212. ; 88:February, s. 54-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a "wicked problem" that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes.
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