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Sökning: WFRF:(Rao N.) > (2020)

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  • Roelofs, F., et al. (författare)
  • SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline: Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 ESO. Context. Realistic synthetic observations of theoretical source models are essential for our understanding of real observational data. In using synthetic data, one can verify the extent to which source parameters can be recovered and evaluate how various data corruption effects can be calibrated. These studies are the most important when proposing observations of new sources, in the characterization of the capabilities of new or upgraded instruments, and when verifying model-based theoretical predictions in a direct comparison with observational data. Aims. We present the SYnthetic Measurement creator for long Baseline Arrays (SYMBA), a novel synthetic data generation pipeline for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. SYMBA takes into account several realistic atmospheric, instrumental, and calibration effects. Methods. We used SYMBA to create synthetic observations for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimetre VLBI array, which has recently captured the first image of a black hole shadow. After testing SYMBA with simple source and corruption models, we study the importance of including all corruption and calibration effects, compared to the addition of thermal noise only. Using synthetic data based on two example general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) model images of M 87, we performed case studies to assess the image quality that can be obtained with the current and future EHT array for different weather conditions. Results. Our synthetic observations show that the effects of atmospheric and instrumental corruptions on the measured visibilities are significant. Despite these effects, we demonstrate how the overall structure of our GRMHD source models can be recovered robustly with the EHT2017 array after performing calibration steps, which include fringe fitting, a priori amplitude and network calibration, and self-calibration. With the planned addition of new stations to the EHT array in the coming years, images could be reconstructed with higher angular resolution and dynamic range. In our case study, these improvements allowed for a distinction between a thermal and a non-thermal GRMHD model based on salient features in reconstructed images.
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  • de las Fuentes, L, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, “Some College” (yes/no) and “Graduated College” (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
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  • Gorini, Giacomo, et al. (författare)
  • Engagement of monocytes, NK cells, and CD4(+) Th1 cells by ALVAC-SIV vaccination results in a decreased risk of SIVmac251 vaginal acquisition
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS Pathogens. - 1553-7366 .- 1553-7374. ; 16:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ALVAC-HIV/gp120/alum regimen tested in 8,197 human volunteers (61.4% males, 38.6% females) in the RV144 trial decreased the risk of HIV infection similarly in both sexes. The ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum vaccine also reduced the risk of intrarectal SIVmac251 acquisition in both female and male vaccinated macaques at an average of 44% per exposure. In the current work, we tested whether this vaccine modality could also reduce the risk of intravaginal SIVmac251 exposure. In order to detect correlates of risk, we administered the virus by the intravaginal route and tested another vaccine regimen based on the vaccinia derivative poxvirus NYVAC in parallel. We demonstrate here that the ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum regimen decreases the risk of vaginal SIVmac251 acquisition (50% vaccine efficacy) and, importantly, we confirmed that subsets of monocytes and CD4(+) T cells are correlates of risk of acquisition. In addition, we uncovered cytotoxic vaginal NKG2A(+) cells and gut-homing alpha(4)beta(7) positive plasmablasts as novel correlates of risk of intravaginal virus acquisition. In contrast, NYVAC-SIV vaccination induced high levels of activated T cells and did not protect against SIVmac251 acquisition. We examined the contrasting immune responses to better understand the correlate of protection and found that the unique ability of ALVAC-SIV to activate early interferon responses and the inflammasome during priming differentiates the two poxvirus vectors. This work demonstrates the reproducibility of the efficacy observed in the ALVAC-based regimen and defines novel correlates of risk in the rigorous SIVmac251 macaque model, establishing a benchmark for future improvement of this vaccine approach. The recombinant Canarypox ALVAC-HIV/gp120/alum vaccine regimen was the first to significantly decrease the risk of HIV acquisition in humans, with equal effectiveness in both males and females. Similarly, an equivalent SIV-based ALVAC vaccine regimen decreased the risk of virus acquisition in Indian rhesus macaques of both sexes following intrarectal exposure to low doses of SIVmac251. Here, we demonstrate that the ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum vaccine is also efficacious in female Chinese rhesus macaques following intravaginal exposure to low doses of SIVmac251 and we confirm that CD14(+) classical monocytes are a strong correlate of decreased risk of virus acquisition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of CD14(+) cells and/or their gene expression correlates with blood Type 1 CD4(+) T helper cells, alpha(4)beta(+)(7) plasmablasts, and vaginal cytocidal NKG2A(+) cells. To better understand the correlate of protection, we contrasted the ALVAC-SIV vaccine with a NYVAC-based SIV/gp120 regimen that used the identical immunogen. We found that NYVAC-SIV induced higher immune activation via CD4(+)Ki67(+)CD38(+) and CD4(+)Ki67(+)alpha(4)beta(+)(7) T cells, higher SIV envelope-specific IFN-gamma producing cells, equivalent ADCC, and did not decrease the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition. Using the systems biology approach, we demonstrate that specific expression profiles of plasmablasts, NKG2A(+) cells, and monocytes elicited by the ALVAC-based regimen correlated with decreased risk of virus acquisition.</p>
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