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Sökning: WFRF:(Rinsland C.P.)

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1.
  • Clerbaux, C., et al. (författare)
  • CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 2569-2594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO), a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006). We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane) observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES) as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS) were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above). These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km), than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km), and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.
2.
  • Jin, J.J., et al. (författare)
  • Co-located ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR stratospheric-mesospheric CO 2004 measurements and comparison with a GCM
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276. ; 32:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a comparison of co-located and near simultaneous CO measurements from January to May, 2004 and from the Arctic to southern polar regions using the ACE-FTS, in solar occultation mode, and the Odin/SMR, which measures atmospheric emission. We find that there is excellent agreement between the two instruments at the locations investigated over 4 orders of magnitude from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. There is also good agreement with the CMAM model simulation from 20 km to 90 km in sub-tropical and tropical latitudes but poorer agreement in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere in winter polar regions. For the Arctic in March 2004 this can be attributed, at least partly, to the unique dynamical processes in the stratosphere in the winter of 2003 - 2004. Clearly CO measurements from these instruments will provide a useful tool for testing model transport from the troposphere to the thermosphere.
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3.
  • Nassar, R., et al. (författare)
  • A global inventory of stratospheric chlorine in 2004
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 111:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total chlorine (CITOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HCl, ClONO2, CH3Cl, CCl4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHClF2 (HCFC-22), CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), COClF, and ClO supplemented by data from several other sources, including both measurements and models. Separate chlorine inventories were carried out in five latitude zones (60°-82°N, 30°-60°N, 30°S-30°N, 30°-60°S, and 60°-82°S), averaging the period of February 2004 to January 2005 inclusive, when possible, to deal with seasonal variations. The effect of diurnal variation was avoided by only using measurements taken at local sunset. Mean stratospheric ClTOT values of 3.65 ppbv were determined for both the northern and southern midlatitudes (with an estimated 1σ, accuracy of ±0.13 ppbv and a precision of ±.09 ppbv), accompanied by a slightly lower value in the tropics and slightly higher values at high latitudes. Stratospheric ClTOT profiles in all five latitude zones are nearly linear with a slight positive slope in ppbv /km. Both the observed slopes and pattern of latitudinal variation can be interpreted as evidence of the beginning of a decline in global stratospheric chlorine, which is qualitatively consistent with the mean stratospheric circulation pattern and time lag necessary for transport.
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4.
  • Yurganov, L.N., et al. (författare)
  • A Quantitative Assessment of the 1998 Carbon Monoxide Emission Anomaly in the Northern Hemisphere Based on Total Column and Surface Concentration Measurements
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbon monoxide abundances in the atmosphere have been measured between January 1996 and December 2001 in the high Northern Hemisphere (HNH) (30degrees-90degreesN) using two different approaches: total column amounts of CO retrieved from infrared solar spectra and CO mixing ratios measured in situ at ground-based stations. The data were averaged, and anomalies of the CO HNH burden ( deviations of the total tropospheric mass between 30degreesN and 90degreesN from the mean seasonal profile, determined as the 5 year average) were analyzed. The anomalies obtained from in situ and total column data agree well and both show two maxima, by far the largest in October 1998 and a lower one in August 1996. A noticeable decrease of the positive 1998 summer anomaly with increasing height was found. A box model was applied, and anomalies in source rates were obtained under the assumption of insignificant interannual sink variations. In August 1998 the HNH emission anomaly was estimated to be 38 Tg month(-1). The annual 1998 emission positive anomaly was 96 Tg yr(-1). Nearly all excess CO may be attributed to the emissions from boreal forest fires. According to available inventories, biomass burning emits around 52 Tg yr(-1) during the "normal'' years; therefore total biomass emissions in 1998 were as large as 148 Tg yr(-1). In August 1998, CO contribution from the biomass burning was twice as large as that from fossil fuel combustion. The results were compared to available emission inventories.
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5.
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