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Sökning: WFRF:(Rizzo A.)

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  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • The IceCube data acquisition system : Signal capture, digitization, and timestamping
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002. ; 601:3, s. 294-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs). detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration is maintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - Elsevier. - 0370-1573. ; 427:5-6, s. 257-454
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/- 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/- 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/- 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/- 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/- 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/- 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Neutrino Analysis of the 2010 September Crab Nebula Flare and Time-Integrated Constraints on Neutrino Emission from the Crab Using Icecube
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 745:1, s. 45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of a search for high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab Nebula flare reported on 2010 September by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed. gamma-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E-upsilon(2). neutrino spectrum typical of first-order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cutoffs as observed for various Galactic sources in. gamma-rays. The 90% confidence level (CL) best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 x 10(-11) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 for an E-upsilon(2). neutrino spectrum and 2.50 x 10(-10) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 for a softer neutrino spectra of E-upsilon(-2.7), as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. In this paper, we also illustrate the impact of the time-integrated limit on the Crab neutrino steady emission. The limit obtained using 375.5 days of the 40-string configuration is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of anisotropy in the arrival directions of galactic cosmic rays at multiple angular scales with IceCube
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 740:1, s. 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Between 2009 May and 2010 May, the IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole recorded 32 billion muons generated in air showers produced by cosmic rays with a median energy of 20 TeV. With a data set of this size, it is possible to probe the southern sky for per-mil anisotropy on all angular scales in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays. Applying a power spectrum analysis to the relative intensity map of the cosmic ray flux in the southern hemisphere, we show that the arrival direction distribution is not isotropic, but shows significant structure on several angular scales. In addition to previously reported large-scale structure in the form of a strong dipole and quadrupole, the data show small-scale structure on scales between 15 degrees and 30 degrees. The skymap exhibits several localized regions of significant excess and deficit in cosmic ray intensity. The relative intensity of the smaller-scale structures is about a factor of five weaker than that of the dipole and quadrupole structure. The most significant structure, an excess localized at (right ascension alpha = 122 degrees.4 and declination d = -47 degrees.4), extends over at least 20 degrees in right ascension and has a post-trials significance of 5.3 sigma. The origin of this anisotropy is still unknown.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 40-string detector
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998. ; 84:8, s. 082001
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1 km(3) detector currently taking data at the South Pole. One of the main strategies used to look for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube is the search for a diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos from unresolved sources. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could manifest itself as a detectable signal that may be differentiated from the atmospheric neutrino background by spectral measurement. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration which operated between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos. A total of 12 877 upward-going candidate neutrino events have been selected for this analysis. No evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos was found in the data set leading to a 90% C. L. upper limit on the normalization of an E(-2) astrophysical nu(mu) flux of 8.9 x 10(-9) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1). The analysis is sensitive in the energy range between 35 TeV and 7 PeV. The 12 877 candidate neutrino events are consistent with atmospheric muon neutrinos measured from 332 GeV to 84 TeV and no evidence for a prompt component to the atmospheric neutrino spectrum is found.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 701:2, s. 1721-1731
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB 080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.1 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, no excess was found above background. The 90% CL upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.5 x 10(-3) erg cm(-2) in the energy range between 120 TeV and 2.2 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in gamma-ray bursts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 484:7394, s. 351-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 10(18) electronvolts. GRBs (c-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources(1-3). In the GRB 'fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and gamma-rays(4). Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux(5-7). Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions(4,8-10). This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10(18) electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - 0927-6505. ; 35:6, s. 312-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10-50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to test the localization of acoustic events. An upper limit on the neutrino flux at energies E-v>10(11) GeV is derived from acoustic data taken over eight months. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on the extremely-high energy cosmic neutrino flux with the IceCube 2008-2009 data
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. - 1550-7998. ; 83:9, s. 092003
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on a search for extremely-high energy neutrinos with energies greater than 10(6) GeV using the data taken with the IceCube detector at the South Pole. The data was collected between April 2008 and May 2009 with the half-completed IceCube array. The absence of signal candidate events in the sample of 333.5 days of live time significantly improves model-independent limits from previous searches and allows to place a limit on the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos with an E-2 spectrum in the energy range 2.0 x 10(6) - 6.3 x 10(9) GeV to a level of E-2 phi <= 3.6 x 10(-8) GeV cm(-2) sec(-1) sr(-1).
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Extending the Search for Neutrino Point Sources with IceCube above the Horizon
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007. ; 103:22, s. 221102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.
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