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Sökning: WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V) > (2002-2004)

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1.
  • Koposov, Roman A, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol use in adolescents from northern Russia : the role of the social context.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414 .- 1464-3502. ; 37:3, s. 297-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drinking alcohol is an essential and commonplace part of life in Russia. Alcohol-related problems in the general population and among adolescents in particular has become a major public health concern. The problem cannot be solely explained by the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption. The social determinants of drinking alcohol also need to be considered. These are the focus of the present investigation. The social determinants of drinking behaviour were assessed by self-reports (Social Context of Drinking Scale, Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale and Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index) in 387 secondary school students in Arkhangelsk, Russia. The factor structure for the Social Context of Drinking Scale was similar to that noted in respect of the original study [Thombs and Beck (1994) Health Education and Research 9, 13-22]. Significant gender differences in problem drinking and the social contexts of drinking were found. High intensity girl drinkers were likely to drink in most social contexts, whereas high intensity drinking boys were more likely to drink in the context of Stress Control. Furthermore, boy problem drinkers were more likely to drink in the context of School Defiance and Peer Acceptance, whereas girl problem drinkers tended to drink in the contexts of School Defiance and Stress Control. In general, the Social Context of Drinking Scale demonstrated a good ability to discriminate high from low intensity drinkers, and high from low problem drinkers. These results may provide useful information for targeted prevention programmes for adolescents.
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2.
  • Koposov, Roman A, et al. (författare)
  • Sense of coherence : a mediator between violence exposure and psychopathology in Russian juvenile delinquents.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. - 0022-3018 .- 1539-736X. ; 191:10, s. 638-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to community violence tends to have a hazardous impact on the health and well being of youth. In this context, sense of coherence is related to indicators of well being and mental health and is considered crucial for human information processing in resolving conflicts and coping with enduring stress. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of sense of coherence as a potential mediator in the relationships between community violence exposure and psychopathology, controlling for involvement in severe problem behavior. The study was conducted with a group of Russian juvenile delinquents (N = 159; a highly traumatized population with a history of frequent exposure to violence), who completed a set of questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, psychopathology, involvement in severe problem behaviors, and sense of coherence. The relationships among the variables of interest were explored using a structural equation modeling approach. Sense of coherence partially mediated the link between victimization and psychopathology. The direct relationships between victimization and psychopathology decreased in size, suggesting that higher levels of sense of coherence can potentially reduce the levels of psychopathology. These results have an important theoretical value and are meaningful for clinical work, suggesting that preventive and therapeutic interventions should aim at increasing sense of coherence, which might be especially valuable in populations at risk.
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3.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav V, et al. (författare)
  • Suicidal ideations and attempts in juvenile delinquents.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 44:7, s. 1058-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Suicidality among adolescents is a common focus of clinical attention. In spite of links to disruptive behaviors and other types of psychopathology, it is not clear whether other factors commonly associated with suicide, such as personality and parenting, predict suicidality over and above psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideations and attempts and their relationship to psychopathology, violence exposure, personality traits and parental rearing in Russian male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder (CD).METHOD: Suicidality and psychopathology were assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview in 271 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents diagnosed with CD. Violence exposure, personality characteristics and perceived parental rearing were assessed via self-reports.RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of those diagnosed with CD (92 subjects) reported a lifetime history of either suicidal thoughts or attempts. Suicidal ideators and attempters did not differ significantly on any variable of interest, but both reported significantly higher rates of psychopathology and violence exposure than the non-suicidal group, as well as higher levels of harm avoidance, lower self-directedness, and higher rates of perceived negative parental rearing. Finally, even when controlling for the relationship with psychopathology, personality and perceived parental rearing factors showed significant associations with suicidality.CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile delinquents with CD have high rates of suicidal ideations and attempts, related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology and specific personality traits. These findings suggest that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors create vulnerability to stressors, which under the influence of situational factors (e.g., repeated traumatization) may lead to suicidal thoughts and acts. Factors potentially contributing to vulnerability for suicidality should be identified when planning prevention and rehabilitation efforts for troubled youth.
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4.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav V, et al. (författare)
  • Violence exposure, posttraumatic stress, and personality in juvenile delinquents.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - 0890-8567 .- 1527-5418. ; 41:3, s. 322-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess posttraumatic stress and its relationship to comorbid psychopathology, violence exposure, and personality traits in Russian male juvenile delinquents.METHOD: Posttraumatic stress and comorbid psychopathology were assessed by a semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version) in 370 delinquent youths during winter-spring of 1999. In addition, violence exposure, personality, and psychopathology were assessed by self-reports.RESULTS: Most delinquents reported some degree of posttraumatic stress: 156 subjects (42%) fulfilled partial criteria and 87 (25%) fulfilled full DSM-IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Violence-related experiences (witnessing and victimization) were the most common types of trauma. Higher levels of posttraumatic stress were accompanied by higher rates of comorbid psychopathology, with the most striking differences occurring between the groups with full versus partial PTSD criteria. Violence exposure was related to temperamental behavior activation (novelty seeking), whereas PTSD symptom scores were predominantly related to behavior inhibition and poor coping (high harm avoidance and low self-directedness).CONCLUSIONS: Similar to findings from American samples, Russian juvenile delinquents represent a severely traumatized population, mainly due to high levels of violence exposure. Those with full PTSD are the most severely traumatized and have highest rates of psychopathology, as compared to those with no or partial PTSD, and they require the most clinical attention and rehabilitation. Both exposure to violence and levels of posttraumatic stress are related to personality traits, which influence degree of exposure and individual perception of stress. The latter should be considered in individualized approaches to rehabilitation.
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5.
  • Sukhodolsky, Denis G, et al. (författare)
  • Association of normative beliefs and anger with aggression and antisocial behavior in Russian male juvenile offenders and high school students.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. - 0091-0627 .- 1573-2835. ; 32:2, s. 225-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with higher levels of anger and stronger beliefs that physical aggression is an appropriate course of action in conflicts. After statistically controlling for nonaggressive antisocial behavior, the relationship between physical aggression and antisocial beliefs was not significant. Similarly, with physical aggression controlled, nonaggressive antisocial behavior was uniquely associated with approval of deviancy, but not with anger or beliefs legitimizing aggression. Juvenile offenders reported higher levels of anger experience and higher frequency of aggression and antisocial behavior compared to high school students. There were no differences in normative beliefs between these two groups. This specificity of association of social-cognitive and emotion-regulation processes to aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior may be relevant to understanding the mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral therapy for conduct disorder and antisocial behavior.
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