SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.) > (2005-2009)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 20
  • [1]2Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav V, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet MAO-B, personality, and psychopathology
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. - 0021-843X .- 1939-1846. ; 114:3, s. 477-482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article investigates the relationships between platelet monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) activity, personality, and psychopathology (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994] diagnoses. These relationships were assessed in 178 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. Even after controlling for smoking, the authors found that both Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology were negatively related to MAO-B activity. In the final reduced model, novelty seeking fully mediated the relationships between MAO-B and Externalizing Psychopathology but not between MAO-B and Internalizing Psychopathology. It was hypothesized that low platelet MAO-B activity does not directly predispose individuals to psychopathology but is related to specific personality traits, which in turn represent a vulnerability factor for psychopathology. Future studies should help clarify the nature of the relationships between personality, biological markers, and psychopathology.
  •  
2.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial process screening device : Validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:5, s. 438-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age = 16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700–707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383–392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.
  •  
3.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents : What are the associated factors?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:3, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the discriminative power of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), aggressive traits, impulsiveness, antisocial attitudes and alcohol-related problems between subgroups of Russian juvenile delinquents (n = 175) with low versus high levels of violent behavior; and b) to compare the predictive value of these variables in two subgroups defined by higher versus lower levels of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated that the APSD score, traits of physical aggression and alcohol-related problems were able to discriminate between groups with various levels of violence. Furthermore, the level of violence was the only variant factor when comparing levels of psychopathy. Finally, different sets of predictors emerged for the group with higher versus lower psychopathy scores. The results are discussed in relation to specific features of psychopathy and environmental factors in general and the use of alcohol in particular.
  •  
4.
  • Frey, Ariel, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescents in transition : school and family characteristics in the development of violent behaviors entering high school.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development. - 0009-398X .- 1573-3327. ; 40:1, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) survey was conducted among 652 predominantly minority, inner-city adolescents during their transition from middle to high school in order to examine school attachment, perceived teacher support, parental control, and exposure to community violence as predictors of engagement in violent activities, development of aggressive beliefs, perception of school climate, and academic motivation one year later. Family and school factors appeared to be differentially associated with the negative outcomes. School attachment was associated with lower levels of violent delinquency and aggressive beliefs, as well as with academic motivation. Perceived teacher support was associated with positive perceptions of school climate and with academic motivation. Parental control was associated with lower levels of violent activity and with higher levels of academic motivation. Violence exposure was related to violent delinquency and negative perception of school climate. School attachment, teacher support, parental control, and violence exposure must all be incorporated into school reform efforts intended to break the inner city cycle of violence.
  •  
5.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Exploring interactive effects of genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 19:4, s. 1089-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is established that reading and reading-related processes are heritable; genes thus play an important role in the foundation of individual differences in reading. In this article, we focus on one facet of reading-comprehension. Comprehension is a higher order cognitive skill that requires many other cognitive processes for it to unfold completely and successfully. One such process is executive functioning, which has been associated with genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Genotypes and haplotypes of four single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT were investigated in 179 incarcerated adolescent delinquents. Four hierarchical logistic regression models predicting the presence/absence of comprehension difficulties were fitted to the data; genetic variation in COMT and the presence/absence of maternal rejection were investigated as main effects and as effects acting interactively. Three out of four interaction terms were found to be important predictors of individual differences in comprehension. These findings were supported by the results of the haplotype analyses, in which the four investigated polymorphisms were considered simultaneously.
  •  
6.
  • Haeffel, Gerald J., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Polymorphisms in the Dopamine Transporter Gene and Depression : Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in a Sample of Juvenile Detainees
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 19:1, s. 62-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has generated examples of how genetic and environmental factors can interact to create risk for psychopathology. Using a gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction design, we tested whether three polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, also referred to as SLC6A3, located at 5p15.33) interacted with maternal parenting style to predict first-onset episodes of depression. Participants were male adolescents (N= 176) recruited from a juvenile detention center in northern Russia. As hypothesized, one of the polymorphisms (rs40184) moderated the effect of perceived maternal rejection on the onset of major depressive disorder, as well as on suicidal ideation. Further, this G × E interaction was specific to depression; it did not predict clinically significant anxiety. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the moderating effects of dopaminergic genes on depression.
  •  
7.
  • Långström, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for violent offending in autism spectrum disorder : a national study of hospitalized individuals.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence. - 0886-2605 .- 1552-6518. ; 24:8, s. 1358-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about risk factors for violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study uses data from Swedish longitudinal registers for all 422 individuals hospitalized with autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome during 1988-2000 and compares those committing violent or sexual offenses with those who did not. Thirty-one individuals with ASD (7%) were convicted of violent nonsexual crimes and two of sexual offenses. Violent individuals with ASD are more often male and diagnosed with Asperger syndrome rather than autistic disorder. Furthermore, comorbid psychotic and substance use disorders are associated with violent offending. We conclude that violent offending in ASD is related to similar co-occurring psychopathology as previously found among violent individuals without ASD. Although this study does not answer whether ASDs are associated with increased risk of violent offending compared with the general population, careful risk assessment and management may be indicated for some individuals with Asperger syndrome.
  •  
8.
  • O'Donnell, Deborah A, et al. (författare)
  • The mediating role of alienation in the development of maladjustment in youth exposed to community violence.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 18:1, s. 215-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A study was conducted to determine predictors of high risk/delinquent behavior and psychoemotional maladjustment in 1,478 sixth and eighth graders who took part in a survey of high-risk and adaptive behaviors. The first goal was to determine the extent to which two distinct dimensions of alienation, normlessness, and isolation/self-estrangement mediated the emergence of maladjustment in youth exposed to community violence. The second goal was to distinguish between violence witnessing and violence victimization, and determine whether these subtypes of violence exposure may differentially affect the proposed mediational factors. The results indicated that normlessness partially mediated the relationship between violence exposure and high-risk/delinquent behavior and between violence exposure and psychoemotional maladjustment. Isolation/self-estrangement partially mediated the relation between violence exposure and psychoemotional maladjustment. Although witnessing of, and victimization by, violence were both significant predictors of normlessness, only violent victimization was significantly linked to isolation/self-estrangement. These results elucidate the mechanisms by which community violence exposure may exert negative influences on youth and suggest that there are distinct patterns of risk associated with different forms of exposure.
  •  
9.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • ADHD symptoms and associated psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents from the European north of Russia.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders. - 1087-0547 .- 1557-1246. ; 12:1, s. 54-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia.METHOD: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports.RESULTS: Prevalence of individual ADHD symptoms ranges between 3.3% and 35%. Only 8.9% of boys and 3.6% of girls have positive ratings on six items in either inattention or hyperactivity subtype. These adolescents fare significantly worse regarding externalizing but not internalizing problems. Compared to girls with ADHD, boys with ADHD report higher levels of violent and nonviolent delinquency and are described by teachers as having more conduct problems. Possible ADHD status is associated with depressive symptoms in boys but not in girls.CONCLUSION: The estimates of ADHD prevalence rates obtained in this study are similar to those of other countries, suggesting the need for identification and treatment of the disorder. Evaluation of associated disruptive behavior disorders and depression, particularly in boys, is warranted.
  •  
10.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • Depressive symptoms and associated psychopathology in urban adolescents : a cross-cultural study of three countries.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. - 0022-3018 .- 1539-736X. ; 194:2, s. 106-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study aimed to compare cross-cultural trends of comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, prosocial beliefs, and perceptions of risk in adolescents with and without clinical levels of self-reported depressive symptoms. The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was conducted in a representative sample of 3309 adolescents 14 to 17 years old from urban communities in the United States (N = 1343), Belgium (N = 946), and Russia (N = 1009). In all three countries, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. The findings also demonstrate that in both genders, depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as lower levels of prosocial beliefs and low perceptions of harm from risk-taking behavior. Depressed boys had relatively higher levels of externalizing problems than depressed girls. Greater levels of internalizing problems observed in depressed youth, as compared with their nondepressed counterparts, were not gender-specific. Current findings suggest that the relationships between depression and comorbid psychopathology are not culture-specific and have similar patterns in different populations.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 20
  • [1]2Nästa

Kungliga biblioteket hanterar dina personuppgifter i enlighet med EU:s dataskyddsförordning (2018), GDPR. Läs mer om hur det funkar här.
Så här hanterar KB dina uppgifter vid användning av denna tjänst.

 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy