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Sökning: WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • DeYoung, Colin G., et al. (författare)
  • Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism associated with conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms, among adolescent male delinquents
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Psychiatric Genetics. - 0955-8829 .- 1473-5873. ; 20:1, s. 20-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) has been associated with antisocial behavior in populations with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined whether COMT would predict antisocial behavior in a sample with high levels of behavior problems, not necessarily ADHD. In addition, because previous research suggests that COMT may be associated with ADHD in males, association between COMT and ADHD symptoms was examined. Method This study tested whether variation in three polymorphisms of the COMT gene was predictive of symptoms of conduct disorder and ADHD, in a sample of 174 incarcerated Russian adolescent male delinquents. Results The Val allele of the Val(158)Met polymorphism was significantly associated with conduct disorder diagnosis and symptoms, whereas the Met allele was associated with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The Val(158)Met polymorphism of the COMT gene shows a complex relation to behavior problems, influencing conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms in opposite directions in a high-risk population. Psychiatr Genet 20:20-24 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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2.
  • Fazel, Seena, et al. (författare)
  • Homicide in discharged patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses : a national case-control study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Research. - 0920-9964 .- 1573-2509. ; 123:2-3, s. 263-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with homicide after discharge from hospital in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses.DESIGN: All homicides committed by patients with psychosis within 6 months of hospital discharge were identified in Sweden from 1988-2001 and compared with patients with psychoses discharged over the same time period who did not subsequently commit any violent offences. Medical records were then collected, and data extracted using a validated protocol. Interrater reliability tests were performed on a subsample, and variables with poor reliability excluded from subsequent analyses.RESULTS: We identified 47 cases who committed a homicide within 6 months of discharge, and 105 controls who did not commit any violent offence after discharge. On univariate analyses, clinical factors on admission associated with homicide included evidence of poor self-care, substance misuse, and being previously hospitalized for a violent episode. Inpatient characteristics included having a severe mental illness for one year prior to admission. After-care factors associated with homicide were evidence of medication non-compliance and substance misuse. The predictive validity of combining two or three of these factors was not high. Depression appeared to be inversely associated with homicide, and there was no relationship with the presence of delusions or hallucinations.CONCLUSIONS: There are a number of potentially treatable factors that are associated with homicide in schizophrenia and other psychoses. Associations with substance misuse and treatment compliance could be the focus of therapeutic interventions if validated in other samples. However, their clinical utility in violence risk assessment remains uncertain.
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3.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Aggressive Behavior, Related Conduct Problems, and Variation in Genes Affecting Dopamine Turnover
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Aggressive Behavior. - 0096-140X .- 1098-2337. ; 36:3, s. 158-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and D beta H in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n = 182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n = 60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.
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4.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire : Russian validation of the teacher version and comparison of teacher and student reports.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence. - 0140-1971 .- 1095-9254. ; 35:1, s. 87-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To confirm factor structure of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and to compare teacher and student reports in Russian youth.METHOD: The SDQ and psychopathology measures were completed by teachers in a representative sample of urban adolescents (N = 528). The factor structure was examined on two randomly selected split-halves of the sample, and using a gender split. The functional impairment score was predicted by the SDQ problem scales.RESULTS: The fit for all models was acceptable. The fit did not decrease when applying increasing constraints in the random-split model, but became significantly worse for the gender model, suggesting lack of measure invariance. SDQ problem scales explained 37% of functional impairment variance. Significant scale interaction (emotional problems*peer problems and conduct problems*hyperactivity) suggest that combination of these problems produces an additional impact on functioning.CONCLUSIONS: The SDQ teacher report may represent a potentially useful screener for children and youth.
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5.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours : Findings from northern Russia.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence. - 0376-8716 .- 1879-0046. ; 133:15, s. 838-844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia.METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours.RESULTS: Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours.CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being.
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6.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Binge drinking among adolescents in Russia : Prevalence, risk and protective factors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addictive Behaviours. - 0306-4603 .- 1873-6327. ; 38:4, s. 1988-1995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite evidence that alcohol misuse has been having an increasingly detrimental effect on adolescent wellbeing in Russia in recent years this phenomenon has been little researched. Using data from 2112 children from the Arkhangelsk Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) 2003, this study examined which factors acted as 'risk' or 'protective' factors for adolescent binge drinking within three domains we termed the 'family environment', the 'alcohol environment' and 'deviant behaviour'. The results showed that in the presence of comparatively moderate levels of binge drinking among both boys and girls, being able to access alcohol easily, being unaware of the risks of binge drinking and having peers who consumed alcohol increased the risk of adolescent binge drinking - as did playing truant, smoking and marijuana use, while parental warmth was protective against binge drinking for girls. Our finding that risk and protective factors occur across domains suggests that any interventions targeted against adolescent binge drinking may need to simultaneously focus on risk behaviours in different domains, while at the same time, broader social policy should act to limit the availability of alcohol to adolescents in Russia more generally.
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7.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Loneliness and health risk behaviours among Russian and U.S. adolescents : a cross-sectional study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC public health. - 1471-2458. ; 14, s. 366-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: For some adolescents feeling lonely can be a protracted and painful experience. It has been suggested that engaging in health risk behaviours such as substance use and sexual behaviour may be a way of coping with the distress arising from loneliness during adolescence. However, the association between loneliness and health risk behaviour has been little studied to date. To address this research gap, the current study examined this relation among Russian and U.S. adolescents.METHODS: Data were used from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school-based survey conducted in 2003. A total of 1995 Russian and 2050 U.S. students aged 13-15 years old were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between loneliness and substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and violence.RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, loneliness was associated with a significantly increased risk of adolescent substance use in both Russia and the United States. Lonely Russian girls were significantly more likely to have used marijuana (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-4.45), while lonely Russian boys had higher odds for past 30-day smoking (OR, 1.87; CI, 1.08-3.24). In the U.S. loneliness was associated with the lifetime use of illicit drugs (excepting marijuana) among boys (OR, 3.09; CI, 1.41-6.77) and with lifetime marijuana use (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.26-2.55), past 30-day alcohol consumption (OR, 1.80; CI, 1.18-2.75) and past 30-day binge drinking (OR, 2.40; CI, 1.56-3.70) among girls. The only relation between loneliness and sexual risk behaviour was among Russian girls, where loneliness was associated with significantly higher odds for ever having been pregnant (OR, 1.69; CI: 1.12-2.54). Loneliness was not associated with violent behaviour among boys or girls in either country.CONCLUSION: Loneliness is associated with adolescent health risk behaviour among boys and girls in both Russia and the United States. Further research is now needed in both settings using quantitative and qualitative methods to better understand the association between loneliness and health risk behaviours so that effective interventions can be designed and implemented to mitigate loneliness and its effects on adolescent well-being.
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8.
  • Wiklund, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Pro-bullying attitudes among incarcerated juvenile delinquents : Antisocial behavior, psychopathic tendencies and violent crime
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - New York : Pergamon Press. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 37:3, s. 281-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n = 171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed.
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9.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Aggressive behaviour, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Aggressive Behavior. - 0096-140X .- 1098-2337. ; 36:3, s. 158-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and DβH) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) “troubled-behavior-free” boys, n=182; and (b) “troubled-behavior” boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.
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