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Sökning: WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Koposov, R., et al. (författare)
  • Inhalant use in adolescents in northern Russia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 53:7, s. 709-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To determine the prevalence of inhalant use in Russian adolescents and to investigate associated psychosocial problems from a gender perspective. Methods: Data on inhalant use and comorbid psychopathology were collected by means of self-reports from 2892 (42.4% boys) sixth to tenth grade students in public schools in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in boys and girls, who were non-users and users of inhalants. Results: The prevalence of inhalant use was 6.1% among boys and 3.4% among girls. Compared with non-users, inhalant users scored significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing problems, functional impairment and lower on academic motivation, with psychopathology increasing with age. While there were no gender differences for internalizing problems, increased levels of externalizing problems in inhalant users were gender-specific (significantly higher in boys). Conclusions: Inhalant use is related to significantly higher levels of comorbid psychopathology in Russian adolescents. Comprehensive, evidence-based prevention and intervention policies are needed to address inhalant use and its harmful effects.
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2.
  • Ruchkin, V., et al. (författare)
  • Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents : The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development. - : Springer. - 0009-398X .- 1573-3327. ; 48:5, s. 691-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.
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3.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents : the role of community violence exposure
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 54:6, s. 683-691
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.
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4.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders. - : SPRINGER WIEN. - 1866-6116 .- 1866-6647. ; 11:3, s. 279-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.
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5.
  • Stickley, A., et al. (författare)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity : A population-based study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 45, s. 227-234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There has been little research on the association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with co-occurring physical diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association between possible ADHD and physical multimorbidity (i.e. >= 2 physical diseases) among adults in the English general population.Methods: Data were analyzed from 7274 individuals aged >= 18 years that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. ADHD symptoms were assessed with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. Information was also obtained on 20 self-reported doctor/other health professional diagnosed physical health conditions present in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were conducted to assess the associations.Results: There was a monotonic relation between the number of physical diseases and possible ADHD (ASRS score >= 14). Compared to those with no diseases, individuals with >= 5 diseases had over 3 times higher odds for possible ADHD (odds ratio [OR]: 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48-4.37). This association was observed in all age groups. Stressful life events (% mediated 10.3-24.3%), disordered eating (6.8%), depression (12.8%), and anxiety (24.8%) were significant mediators in the association between possible ADHD and physical multimorbidity.Conclusion: Adults that screen positive for ADHD are at an increased risk for multimorbidity and several factors are important in this association. As many adults with ADHD remain undiagnosed, the results of this study highlight the importance of detecting adult ADHD as it may confer an increased risk for poorer health outcomes, including physical multimorbidity.
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6.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 265, s. 317-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Mood instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.
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7.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 56, s. 91-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 
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8.
  • Tingstedt, Olga, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic symptoms and internalizing problems in urban youth : a cross-cultural comparison of Czech and Russian adolescents
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health. - : Oxford University Press. - 1101-1262 .- 1464-360X. ; 28:3, s. 480-484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems (anxiety, somatic anxiety and depression) is well established, it remains unclear whether the pattern of this relationship differs by gender and in different cultures. The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural and gender-specific differences in the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems in youth from the Czech Republic and Russia. Methods: The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was completed by representative community samples of adolescents, age 12-17 years, from the Czech Republic (N = 4770) and Russia (N = 2728). Results: A strong association was observed between somatic complaints and internalizing psychopathology. Although the levels of internalizing problems differed by country and gender, they increased together with and largely in a similar way to somatic complaints for boys and girls in both countries. Conclusion: The association between somatic symptoms and internalizing problems seems to be similar for boys and girls across cultures.
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9.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring possible association between DβH genotype (C1021T), early onset of conduct disorder and psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 266:8, s. 771-773
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early onset of conduct disorder (CD) with callous-unemotional traits has been linked to low levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), an enzyme involved in dopamine turnover. The C1021T polymorphism in the DβH gene is a major quantitative-trait locus, regulating the level of DβH. In this study of juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia (n = 180), the polymorphism at -1021 was associated neither with early-onset CD nor with psychopathic traits. Association was found between psychopathic traits and early-onset CD, ADHD and mania.
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10.
  • Löfving–Gupta, S., et al. (författare)
  • Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth : risk and protective factors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 50:4, s. 539-547
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Method: Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. Results: A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24 % of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Conclusion: Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.
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