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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.) srt2:(2020-2021)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risky sexual behaviour among Russian adolescents : association with internalizing and externalizing symptoms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - : Springer Nature. - 1753-2000 .- 1753-2000. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is regarded as a major health problem during adolescence. Russia has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy, abortion and newly diagnosed HIV infections in the world, but research on RSB in Russian youth has been limited. To address this deficit, this study examined the role of several factors, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, in RSB among Russian adolescents.METHODS: Self-reported data were collected from 2573 Russian adolescents aged 13-17 years old (59.4 % girls; Mean age = 14.89) regarding RSB (unprotected sex, early pregnancy, multiple sexual partners and substance use during sexual encounters). Information was also obtained on externalizing (conduct problems and delinquent behaviour) and internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress) symptoms, as well as interpersonal risk and protective factors (affiliation with delinquent peers, parental involvement and teacher support). Hierarchical multiple binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these variables and RSB.RESULTS: Boys reported engaging in more RSB than girls. Externalizing symptoms and affiliation with delinquent peers were most strongly associated with RSB, whereas symptoms of anxiety were negatively associated with RSB. There was an interaction effect for sex and affiliation with delinquent peers on RSB with boys reporting RSB when having more delinquent peers. Neither parental involvement nor teacher support were protective against RSB.CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of and interventions for RSB and associated externalizing symptoms may be important for adolescent physical and mental wellbeing. Affiliation with delinquent peers should, especially among boys, be regarded as a risk marker for RSB.
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2.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Gender in the Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Anger, and Aggression in Russian Adolescents.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Traumatic Stress. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0894-9867 .- 1573-6598. ; 33:4, s. 552-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to anger and aggressive behavior in adult and veteran populations. However, research on the associations among anger, aggression, and PTSD in adolescents is lacking, particularly regarding differences between the sexes. To address this research gap, we used self-report data from Russian adolescents (N = 2,810; age range: 13-17 years) to perform a full path analysis examining the associations between PTSD symptoms and the emotional (anger traits) and cognitive (rumination) components of anger as well as physical/verbal and social aggression, after adjusting for depressive symptoms. We also examined the interaction effects between PTSD symptoms and sex on anger and aggression. The results indicated that girls scored higher on measures of anger and PTSD symptoms, ds = 0.20-0.32, whereas boys scored higher on measures of physical and verbal aggression, d = 0.54. Clinical levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with anger rumination, β = .16, and trait anger, β = .06, and an interaction effect for PTSD symptoms and sex was found for aggression, whereby boys with clinical levels of PTSD symptoms reported more physical/verbal and social aggression, βs = .05 and .20, respectively. Our findings suggest that PTSD symptoms may have an important impact on anger, anger rumination, and aggression during adolescence. In particular, boys seem to have an increased risk for aggressive behavior in the presence of PTSD symptoms. The present results highlight the importance of taking anger and aggression into account when evaluating PTSD.
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3.
  • Larsen, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Bulimia symptoms in Czech youth : prevalence and association with internalizing problems
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Eating and Weight Disorders. - : Springer. - 1124-4909 .- 1590-1262. ; 25, s. 1543-1552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Although clinical studies suggest that bulimia symptoms are common in youth, research on the prevalence of such symptoms and of their association with comorbid internalizing problems in the general population has been limited. This study aimed to evaluate the gender-specific prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Czech youth and explored the association between a clinical level of self-reported bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and internalizing problems by gender, controlling for age, socio-economic status and puberty status. Method The study was conducted on a representative national sample of Czech youth (N = 4430, 57.0% female) using self-report scales. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examine the associations. Results The 3-month CLBS prevalence was higher in girls (11.4%) than in boys (3.8%) and in both genders a CLBS was associated with higher levels of comorbid internalizing problems. Discussion Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.
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4.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors Associated with Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence among American Inner-City Youth : A Longitudinal Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Substance Use & Misuse. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 1082-6084 .- 1532-2491. ; 55:3, s. 358-366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Early alcohol use is associated with an increased risk for later alcohol dependence, as well as social and mental health problems. In this study, we investigate the risk factors (internalizing and externalizing behaviors) associated with early alcohol consumption over a period of 1 year, and examine whether the association is sex-specific. Methods: U.S. inner-city adolescents (N = 1785, Mean age = 12.11) were assessed and reassessed in the sixth and seventh grades (Mean age = 13.10). Self-reported information was obtained on the lifetime level of alcohol consumption, internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress [PTS]), and externalizing behaviors (sensation seeking, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers). Associations between the variables were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: In an adjusted SEM analysis drinking by the sixth grade was primarily associated with externalizing behaviors, whereas PTS was linked to lower levels of alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption and greater externalizing behaviors by the sixth grade predicted higher alcohol consumption by the seventh grade, whereas anxiety and African American ethnicity were associated with less alcohol consumption. No sex differences were found in the association between internalizing and externalizing behaviors and drinking. However, in the adjusted SEM analysis female sex predicted higher lifetime consumption by the seventh grade. Conclusion: Sensation seeking behavior, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers should be regarded as risk factors and taken into consideration when planning prevention efforts in order to decrease alcohol use in early adolescence.
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5.
  • Koposov, Roman, et al. (författare)
  • Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Incarcerated Adolescents : Prevalence, Personality, and Psychiatric Comorbidity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Incarcerated adolescents represent a risk group for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), but research on this population has been limited and no studies have been conducted in Russia. To address this deficit, this study examined NSSI and the factors associated with it among youth in a juvenile correctional facility in Russia. Methods: NSSI and psychopathology were assessed using a psychiatric interview and self-report questionnaire in 368 incarcerated male adolescents aged 14-19 years (mean age 16.4 years, S.D. 0.9) from Northern Russia. Results: 18.2% (N = 67) of the study participants had a history of NSSI and also had higher rates of anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, community violence exposure and scored higher on most of the Youth Self-Report problem scales. In addition, 31.3% of the NSSI group reported previous suicidal ideation and had thought about a specific suicide method compared to 12.0% in the No-NSSI group. Adolescents with NSSI also differed significantly from the No-NSSI group on self-directedness (lower) and self-transcendence (higher) personality traits. Conclusion: NSSI is common in incarcerated adolescents in Russia and is associated with extensive psychiatric comorbidity, suicidal ideation and specific personality traits.
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6.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • Dopamine-related receptors, substance dependence, behavioral problems and personality among juvenile delinquents
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0191-8869 .- 1873-3549. ; 169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was two-fold: to examine possible associations between dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms and (1) substance dependence; and (2) self-reported psychiatric disturbances, behavioral problems, and personality. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: s) in COMT, DAT and DRD4 was conducted in 174 Russian male juvenile inmates (14–18 years of age) subdivided into having a diagnosis of substance dependence or not, as assessed by using K-SADS-PL. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing psychiatric symptoms (CPTS-RI, BDI), behavioral problems (YSR), and personality traits (TCI). Results revealed that juveniles meeting the criteria for substance dependence differed significantly from their counterparts in four polymorphisms, namely COMT rs737865, DAT rs6347, DRD4 C_1611535 and DRD4 exon III; and exact binary regression analysis indicated a highly significant association between the DRD4 C_1611535 GG genotype and substance dependence. One-way ANOVA tests further showed this gene polymorphism variant to be significantly associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, thought problems, aggressive behavior, and personality traits indicating antisocial personality disturbances, as compared with the other gene polymorphism variants. In conclusion, the results underscore the role of the DRD4 polymorphism C_1611535 GG genotype for substance dependence, and suggest its associations with different self-reported phenotype characteristics.
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7.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Unseen and Stressed? Gender Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms and Associations With Perceived Stress in Children With ADHD.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders. - : SAGE Publications. - 1087-0547 .- 1557-1246. ; 24:11, s. 1565-1569
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate the differences between parent and teacher ADHD ratings, and how these ratings relate to perceived stress in children with ADHD.METHOD: Ratings by parents and teachers with the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham ADHD symptom rating scale (SNAP-IV) were collected from children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n = 137). Also, information on medication was collected. Children (≥11 years of age; n = 64) were invited to complete the Pressure-Activation-Stress scale.RESULTS: Among girls, but not boys, teacher ratings were significantly lower than parental ratings on all symptom scales. Lower teacher ratings on hyperactivity symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress.CONCLUSION: The findings suggest a potential gender bias in ratings among teachers. Underrated, and hence underidentified, ADHD problems in the school setting seem to increase the perception of stress in the sense of pressure for both girls and boys.
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