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Sökning: WFRF:(Rudnai Peter) > (2008-2009)

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1.
  • Heath, Simon C., et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of the fine structure of European populations with applications to disease association studies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 16:12, s. 1413-1429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An investigation into fine-scale European population structure was carried out using high-density genetic variation on nearly 6000 individuals originating from across Europe. The individuals were collected as control samples and were genotyped with more than 300 000 SNPs in genome-wide association studies using the Illumina Infinium platform. A major East-West gradient from Russian (Moscow) samples to Spanish samples was identified as the first principal component (PC) of the genetic diversity. The second PC identified a North-South gradient from Norway and Sweden to Romania and Spain. Variation of frequencies at markers in three separate genomic regions, surrounding LCT, HLA and HERC2, were strongly associated with this gradient. The next 18 PCs also accounted for a significant proportion of genetic diversity observed in the sample. We present a method to predict the ethnic origin of samples by comparing the sample genotypes with those from a reference set of samples of known origin. These predictions can be performed using just summary information on the known samples, and individual genotype data are not required. We discuss issues raised by these data and analyses for association studies including the matching of case-only cohorts to appropriate pre-collected control samples for genome-wide association studies.
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2.
  • Hung, Rayjean J, et al. (författare)
  • A susceptibility locus for lung cancer maps to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes on 15q25
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 452:7187, s. 633-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, with over one million cases annually. To identify genetic factors that modify disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association study by analysing 317,139 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,989 lung cancer cases and 2,625 controls from six central European countries. We identified a locus in chromosome region 15q25 that was strongly associated with lung cancer (P = 9 x 10(-10)). This locus was replicated in five separate lung cancer studies comprising an additional 2,513 lung cancer cases and 4,752 controls (P = 5 x 10(-20) overall), and it was found to account for 14% (attributable risk) of lung cancer cases. Statistically similar risks were observed irrespective of smoking status or propensity to smoke tobacco. The association region contains several genes, including three that encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4). Such subunits are expressed in neurons and other tissues, in particular alveolar epithelial cells, pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and lung cancer cell lines, and they bind to N'-nitrosonornicotine and potential lung carcinogens. A non-synonymous variant of CHRNA5 that induces an amino acid substitution (D398N) at a highly conserved site in the second intracellular loop of the protein is among the markers with the strongest disease associations. Our results provide compelling evidence of a locus at 15q25 predisposing to lung cancer, and reinforce interest in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as potential disease candidates and chemopreventative targets.
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3.
  • McKay, James D., et al. (författare)
  • Lung cancer susceptibility locus at 5p15.33
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 40:12, s. 1404-1406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We carried out a genome-wide association study of lung cancer (3,259 cases and 4,159 controls), followed by replication in 2,899 cases and 5,573 controls. Two uncorrelated disease markers at 5p15.33, rs402710 and rs2736100 were detected by the genome-wide data (P - 2 x 10(-7) and P = 4 x 10(-6)) and replicated by the independent study series (P = 7 x 10(-5) and P = 0.016). The susceptibility region contains two genes, TERT and CLPTM1L, suggesting that one or both may have a role in lung cancer etiology.
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6.
  • Wu, Xifeng, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in the prostate stem cell antigen gene PSCA confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 41:9, s. 991-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a genome-wide association study on 969 bladder cancer cases and 957 controls from Texas. For fast-track validation, we evaluated 60 SNPs in three additional US populations and validated the top SNP in nine European populations. A missense variant (rs2294008) in the PSCA gene showed consistent association with bladder cancer in US and European populations. Combining all subjects (6,667 cases, 39,590 controls), the overall P-value was 2.14 x 10(-10) and the allelic odds ratio was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.10-1.20). rs2294008 alters the start codon and is predicted to cause truncation of nine amino acids from the N-terminal signal sequence of the primary PSCA translation product. In vitro reporter gene assay showed that the variant allele significantly reduced promoter activity. Resequencing of the PSCA genomic region showed that rs2294008 is the only common missense SNP in PSCA. Our data identify rs2294008 as a new bladder cancer susceptibility locus.
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