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  • Buddhism among Tamils in Tamilakam and Īlam
  • 2013
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This book is the result of a conference in Bangkok in January 2012 mainly financed by Vetenskapsrådet in Stockholm (426-2011-1299). In Bangkok, not only pre-colonial Buddhism among Tamils was discussed but also Buddhism during the colonial and post-colonial period, like the Buddhism of Pēriyar, of the Ambedkar movement inYālppāṇam (Jaffna) in the 1950s, and the expansion of siṃhala budusamayam (Siṃhala Buddhism) into areas of Tamil speakers.The field of Buddhist Studies—in Europe and the Americas—has largely ignored the traditions, activities, and cultural products of Tamil-speaking Buddhists in southern India, former pre-colonialTamilakam, present Tamilnāṭu, and Īlam (Sri Laṃkā). This conference, building on previous work done by the applicant, sought to expand the range of conversation from South Indian and Īlam specialists to scholars of southern Asian “Buddhisms” in Southeast Asia. So much of Tamil-speaking religious and literary culture—whether in India or Īlam —is linked in as yet little understood ways to the various regions of Southeast Asia, including Thailand (the site of the conference). Based on prefigurations of Buddhism in Sanskrit and Pāli, representatives of Tamil culture, foremost of Tamil language and religion (Caivam), developed an indigenised form of Tamil Buddhism. In this volume it is called tamilppauttam (or Tamil Pauttam) in accordance with a tradition by scholars using Tamil. The concept of tamilppauttamis part of a rich indigenous Buddhist terminology that presentsan emic aspect of Buddhism among Tamils and is therefore elaborately brought out in this volume.In the history of the European study of South Asian Buddhism—stemming back to the mid-nineteenth century—the Tamil-speaking Buddhist communities of southern India and Īlam have been relatively under-studied, but provide an important link in dialogue and confrontation among the diverse Buddhist landscapes of greater India and the largely Theravāda communities of Īlam. In colonial and postcolonial times, Buddhism has been instrumentalised, as a liberating force from the caste system within the Tamil Dalit movement and also as a creative force of a new Buddhist identity in Īlam as alternative to Siṃhala Budu Samayam. The problem for Buddhists among Tamilsin Īlam today is that that their historical tradition is questioned by both Tamil Caivas (Shaivas) and Siṃhala Buddhists.Each conference paper contributed to a clearer understanding ofthe role of Tamil-speaking Buddhists in textual, literary and political cultures, as emissaries of Buddhism among Tamils in past and present.The goal of the conference was to foster critical inter-regional dialogue on topics concerning the transmission, cultures, and contactsamong various forms of southern Asian “Buddhisms”.
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  • Monius, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Preface
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Buddhism among Tamils in Tamilakam and Īlam : Part 3 - Extension and Conclusions. - Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. - 978-91-554-8412-5 ; s. 13-20
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Mühlbacher, Marlene, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Cu diffusion in single-crystal and polycrystalline TiN barrier layers : A high-resolution experimental study supported by first-principles calculations
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dense single-crystal and polycrystalline TiN/Cu stacks were prepared by unbalanced DC magnetron sputter deposition at a substrate temperature of 700 °C and a pulsed bias potential of -100 V. The microstructural variation was achieved by using two different substrate materials, MgO(001) and thermally oxidized Si(001), respectively. Subsequently, the stacks were subjected to isothermal annealing treatments at 900 °C for 1 h in high vacuum to induce the diffusion of Cu into the TiN. The performance of the TiN diffusion barrier layers was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping and atom probe tomography. No Cu penetration was evident in the single-crystal stack up to annealing temperatures of 900 °C, due to the low density of line and planar defects in single-crystal TiN. However, at higher annealing temperatures when diffusion becomes more prominent, density-functional theory calculations predict a stoichiometry-dependent atomic diffusion mechanism of Cu in bulk TiN, with Cu diffusing on the N sublattice for the experimental N/Ti ratio. In comparison, localized diffusion of Cu along grain boundaries in the columnar polycrystalline TiN barriers was detected after the annealing treatment. The maximum observed diffusion length was approximately 30 nm, yielding a grain boundary diffusion coefficient of the order of 10‑16 cm2s-1 at 900 °C. This is 10 to 100 times less than for comparable underdense polycrystalline TiN coatings deposited without external substrate heating or bias potential. The combined numerical and experimental approach presented in this paper enables the contrasting juxtaposition of diffusion phenomena and mechanisms in two TiN coatings, which differ from each other only in the presence of grain boundaries.
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