SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Strong K.) ;pers:(Drell P. S.);pers:(Michelson P. F.);srt2:(2010)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Strong K.) > Drell P. S. > Michelson P. F. > (2010)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 10
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 188:2, s. 405-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4 sigma. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.
  •  
2.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • The first fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 187:2, s. 460-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dramatic increase in the number of known gamma-ray pulsars since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) offers the first opportunity to study a sizable population of these high-energy objects. This catalog summarizes 46 high-confidence pulsed detections using the first six months of data taken by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), Fermi's main instrument. Sixteen previously unknown pulsars were discovered by searching for pulsed signals at the positions of bright gamma-ray sources seen with the LAT, or at the positions of objects suspected to be neutron stars based on observations at other wavelengths. The dimmest observed flux among these gamma-ray-selected pulsars is 6.0 x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (for E > 100 MeV). Pulsed gamma-ray emission was discovered from 24 known pulsars by using ephemerides (timing solutions) derived from monitoring radio pulsars. Eight of these new gamma-ray pulsars are millisecond pulsars. The dimmest observed flux among the radio-selected pulsars is 1.4 x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (for E > 100 MeV). The remaining six gamma-ray pulsars were known since the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission, or before. The limiting flux for pulse detection is non-uniform over the sky owing to different background levels, especially near the Galactic plane. The pulsed energy spectra can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff, with cutoff energies in the range similar to 1-5 GeV. The rotational energy-loss rate ((E) over dot) of these neutron stars spans five decades, from similar to 3 x 10(33) erg s(-1) to 5 x 10(38) erg s(-1), and the apparent efficiencies for conversion to gammaray emission range from similar to 0.1% to similar to unity, although distance uncertainties complicate efficiency estimates. The pulse shapes show substantial diversity, but roughly 75% of the gamma-ray pulse profiles have two peaks, separated by greater than or similar to 0.2 of rotational phase. For most of the pulsars, gamma-ray emission appears to come mainly from the outer magnetosphere, while polar-cap emission remains plausible for a remaining few. Spatial associations imply that many of these pulsars power pulsar wind nebulae. Finally, these discoveries suggest that gamma-ray-selected young pulsars are born at a rate comparable to that of their radio-selected cousins and that the birthrate of all young gamma-ray-detected pulsars is a substantial fraction of the expected Galactic supernova rate.
  •  
3.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • Searches for cosmic-ray electron anisotropies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PHYS REV D. - 1550-7998. ; 82:9, s. 092003
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite (Fermi LAT) detected more than 1.6 x 10(6) cosmic-ray electrons/positrons with energies above 60 GeV during its first year of operation. The arrival directions of these events were searched for anisotropies of angular scale extending from similar to 10 degrees up to 90 degrees, and of minimum energy extending from 60 GeV up to 480 GeV. Two independent techniques were used to search for anisotropies, both resulting in null results. Upper limits on the degree of the anisotropy were set that depended on the analyzed energy range and on the anisotropy's angular scale. The upper limits for a dipole anisotropy ranged from similar to 0.5% to similar to 10%.
  •  
4.
  • Abdo, A.A, et al. (författare)
  • DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 709:2, s. l152-L157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8 sigma and 4.8 sigma, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with gamma-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.
  •  
5.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of the Small Magellanic Cloud in gamma-rays with Fermi/LAT
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361. ; 523, s. A46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The flux of gamma rays with energies greater than 100 MeV is dominated by diffuse emission coming from cosmic-rays (CRs) illuminating the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy through the processes of Bremsstrahlung, pion production and decay, and inverse-Compton scattering. The study of this diffuse emission provides insight into the origin and transport of cosmic rays. Aims. We searched for gamma-ray emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in order to derive constraints on the cosmic-ray population and transport in an external system with properties different from the Milky Way. Methods. We analysed the first 17 months of continuous all-sky observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi mission to determine the spatial distribution, flux and spectrum of the gamma-ray emission from the SMC. We also used past radio synchrotron observations of the SMC to study the population of CR electrons specifically. Results. We obtained the first detection of the SMC in high-energy gamma rays, with an integrated >100 MeV flux of (3.7 +/- 0.7) x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1), with additional systematic uncertainty of <= 16%. The emission is steady and from an extended source similar to 3 degrees in size. It is not clearly correlated with the distribution of massive stars or neutral gas, nor with known pulsars or supernova remnants, but a certain correlation with supergiant shells is observed. Conclusions. The observed flux implies an upper limit on the average CR nuclei density in the SMC of similar to 15% of the value measured locally in the Milky Way. The population of high-energy pulsars of the SMC may account for a substantial fraction of the gamma-ray flux, which would make the inferred CR nuclei density even lower. The average density of CR electrons derived from radio synchrotron observations is consistent with the same reduction factor but the uncertainties are large. From our current knowledge of the SMC, such a low CR density does not seem to be due to a lower rate of CR injection and rather indicates a smaller CR confinement volume characteristic size.
  •  
6.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF CASSIOPEIA AND CEPHEUS : DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION IN THE OUTER GALAXY
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 710:1, s. 133-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope toward a region in the second Galactic quadrant at 100 degrees <= l <= 145 degrees and -15 degrees <= b <= +30 degrees. This region encompasses the prominent Gould Belt clouds of Cassiopeia, Cepheus, and the Polaris flare, as well as atomic and molecular complexes at larger distances, like that associated with NGC 7538 in the Perseus arm. The good kinematic separation in velocity between the local, Perseus, and outer arms, and the presence of massive complexes in each of them, make this region well suited to probe cosmic rays (CRs) and the interstellar medium beyond the solar circle. The gamma-ray emissivity spectrum of the gas in the Gould Belt is consistent with expectations based on the locally measured CR spectra. The gamma-ray emissivity decreases from the Gould Belt to the Perseus arm, but the measured gradient is flatter than expectations for CR sources peaking in the inner Galaxy as suggested by pulsars. The X-CO = N(H-2)/W-CO conversion factor is found to increase from (0.87 +/- 0.05) x 10(20) cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1) in the Gould Belt to (1.9 +/- 0.2) x 10(20) cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1) in the Perseus arm. We derive masses for the molecular clouds under study. Dark gas, not properly traced by radio and microwave surveys, is detected in the Gould Belt through a correlated excess of dust and gamma-ray emission: its mass amounts to similar to 50% of the CO-traced mass.
  •  
7.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 712:1, s. 459-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 (G189.1+3.0) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy band between 200 MeV and 50 GeV. IC 443 is a shell-type SNR with mixed morphology located off the outer Galactic plane where high-energy emission has been detected in the X-ray, GeV and TeV gamma-ray bands. Past observations suggest IC 443 has been interacting with surrounding interstellar matter. Proximity between dense shocked molecular clouds and GeV-TeV gamma-ray emission regions detected by EGRET, MAGIC, and VERITAS suggests an interpretation that cosmic-ray (CR) particles are accelerated by the SNR. With the high gamma-ray statistics and broad energy coverage provided by the LAT, we accurately characterize the gamma-ray emission produced by the CRs accelerated at IC 443. The emission region is extended in the energy band with theta(68) = 0 degrees.27 +/- 0 degrees.01(stat) +/- 0 degrees.03(sys) for an assumed two-dimensional Gaussian profile and overlaps almost completely with the extended source region of VERITAS. Its centroid is displaced significantly from the known pulsar wind nebula (PWN) which suggests the PWN is not the major contributor in the present energy band. The observed spectrum changes its power-law slope continuously and continues smoothly to the MAGIC and VERITAS data points. The combined gamma-ray spectrum (200 MeV < E < 2 TeV) is reproduced well by decays of neutral pions produced by a broken power-law proton spectrum with a break around 70 GeV.
  •  
8.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi LAT observations of cosmic-ray electrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW D. - 1550-7998. ; 82:9, s. 092004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of our analysis of cosmic-ray electrons using about 8 x 10(6) electron candidates detected in the first 12 months on-orbit by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This work extends our previously published cosmic-ray electron spectrum down to 7 GeV, giving a spectral range of approximately 2.5 decades up to 1 TeV. We describe in detail the analysis and its validation using beam-test and on-orbit data. In addition, we describe the spectrum measured via a subset of events selected for the best energy resolution as a cross-check on the measurement using the full event sample. Our electron spectrum can be described with a power law proportional to E-3.08+/-0.05 with no prominent spectral features within systematic uncertainties. Within the limits of our uncertainties, we can accommodate a slight spectral hardening at around 100 GeV and a slight softening above 500 GeV.
  •  
9.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • GeV GAMMA-RAY FLUX UPPER LIMITS FROM CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ASTROPHYS J LETT. - 2041-8205. ; 717:1, s. L71-L78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The detection of diffuse radio emission associated with clusters of galaxies indicates populations of relativistic leptons infusing the intracluster medium (ICM). Those electrons and positrons are either injected into and accelerated directly in the ICM, or produced as secondary pairs by cosmic-ray ions scattering on ambient protons. Radiation mechanisms involving the energetic leptons together with the decay of neutral pions produced by hadronic interactions have the potential to produce abundant GeV photons. Here, we report on the search for GeV emission from clusters of galaxies using data collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 2008 August to 2010 February. Thirty-three galaxy clusters have been selected according to their proximity and high mass, X-ray flux and temperature, and indications of non-thermal activity for this study. We report upper limits on the photon flux in the range 0.2-100 GeV toward a sample of observed clusters (typical values (1-5) x 10(-9) photon cm(-2) s(-1)) considering both point-like and spatially resolved models for the high-energy emission and discuss how these results constrain the characteristics of energetic leptons and hadrons, and magnetic fields in the ICM. The volume-averaged relativistic-hadron-to-thermal energy density ratio is found to be <5%-10% in several clusters.
  •  
10.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • The Fermi-LAT high-latitude survey : Source count distributions and the origin of the extragalactic diffuse background
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 720:1, s. 435-453
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is the first of a series of papers aimed at characterizing the populations detected in the high-latitude sky of the Fermi-LAT survey. In this work, we focus on the intrinsic spectral and flux properties of the source sample. We show that when selection effects are properly taken into account, Fermi sources are on average steeper than previously found (e.g., in the bright source list) with an average photon index of 2.40 +/- 0.02 over the entire 0.1-100 GeV energy band. We confirm that flat spectrum radio quasars have steeper spectra than BL Lacertae objects with an average index of 2.48 +/- 0.02 versus 2.18 +/- 0.02. Using several methods, we build the deepest source count distribution at GeV energies, deriving that the intrinsic source (i.e., blazar) surface density at F-100 >= 10(-9) ph cm(2) s(-1) is 0.12(-0.02)(+0.03) deg(-2). The integration of the source count distribution yields that point sources contribute 16(+/- 1.8)% (+/- 7% systematic uncertainty) of the GeV isotropic diffuse background. At the fluxes currently reached by LAT, we can rule out the hypothesis that pointlike sources (i.e., blazars) produce a larger fraction of the diffuse emission.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 10
 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy