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Sökning: WFRF:(Strong K.) > Drell P. S. > Gargano F.

  • Resultat 1-10 av 36
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1.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM NGC 1275
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 699:1, s. 31-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the gamma-ray source is only approximate to 3' away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of approximate to 5'. The spatial distribution of gamma-ay photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F-gamma = (2.10 +/- 0.23) x 10(-7) ph (>100 MeV) cm(-2) s(-1) and Gamma = 2.17 +/- 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F-gamma < 3.72 x 10(-8) ph (>100 MeV) cm(-2) s(-1) to the gamma-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.
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2.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 696:2, s. 1084-1093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new gamma-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E >= 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of Gamma = 1.51(-0.04)(+0.05) with an exponential cutoff at E-c = 2.9 +/- 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e(-(E/Ec)b) require b <= 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.
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3.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • Gamma ray observations of the orion molecular clouds with the fermi large area telescope
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 756:1, s. 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between similar to 100 MeV and similar to 100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to similar to 10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W-CO) at a 1 degrees x 1 degrees pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W-CO range of similar to 10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W-CO-to-mass conversion factor, X-CO, is found to be similar to 2.3 x 10(20) cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1) for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212 degrees), similar to 1.7 times higher than similar to 1.3 x 10(20) found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high XCO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H-2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W-CO decreases faster than the H-2 column density in the region making the gas darker to W-CO.
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4.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 183:1, s. 46-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the gamma-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than similar to 10 sigma) gamma-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) gamma-ray sources in the early mission data.
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5.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 188:2, s. 405-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4 sigma. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.
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6.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • The first fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 187:2, s. 460-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dramatic increase in the number of known gamma-ray pulsars since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) offers the first opportunity to study a sizable population of these high-energy objects. This catalog summarizes 46 high-confidence pulsed detections using the first six months of data taken by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), Fermi's main instrument. Sixteen previously unknown pulsars were discovered by searching for pulsed signals at the positions of bright gamma-ray sources seen with the LAT, or at the positions of objects suspected to be neutron stars based on observations at other wavelengths. The dimmest observed flux among these gamma-ray-selected pulsars is 6.0 x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (for E > 100 MeV). Pulsed gamma-ray emission was discovered from 24 known pulsars by using ephemerides (timing solutions) derived from monitoring radio pulsars. Eight of these new gamma-ray pulsars are millisecond pulsars. The dimmest observed flux among the radio-selected pulsars is 1.4 x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (for E > 100 MeV). The remaining six gamma-ray pulsars were known since the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission, or before. The limiting flux for pulse detection is non-uniform over the sky owing to different background levels, especially near the Galactic plane. The pulsed energy spectra can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff, with cutoff energies in the range similar to 1-5 GeV. The rotational energy-loss rate ((E) over dot) of these neutron stars spans five decades, from similar to 3 x 10(33) erg s(-1) to 5 x 10(38) erg s(-1), and the apparent efficiencies for conversion to gammaray emission range from similar to 0.1% to similar to unity, although distance uncertainties complicate efficiency estimates. The pulse shapes show substantial diversity, but roughly 75% of the gamma-ray pulse profiles have two peaks, separated by greater than or similar to 0.2 of rotational phase. For most of the pulsars, gamma-ray emission appears to come mainly from the outer magnetosphere, while polar-cap emission remains plausible for a remaining few. Spatial associations imply that many of these pulsars power pulsar wind nebulae. Finally, these discoveries suggest that gamma-ray-selected young pulsars are born at a rate comparable to that of their radio-selected cousins and that the birthrate of all young gamma-ray-detected pulsars is a substantial fraction of the expected Galactic supernova rate.
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7.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - 0927-6505. ; 32:3-4, s. 193-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.
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8.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • CONSTRAINTS ON THE COSMIC-RAY DENSITY GRADIENT BEYOND THE SOLAR CIRCLE FROM FERMI gamma-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE THIRD GALACTIC QUADRANT
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 726:2, s. 81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission in the third Galactic quadrant measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The window encompassing the Galactic plane from longitude 210 degrees to 250 degrees has kinematically well-defined segments of the Local and the Perseus arms, suitable to study the cosmic-ray (CR) densities across the outer Galaxy. We measure no large gradient with Galactocentric distance of the gamma-ray emissivities per interstellar H atom over the regions sampled in this study. The gradient depends, however, on the optical depth correction applied to derive the H I column densities. No significant variations are found in the interstellar spectra in the outer Galaxy, indicating similar shapes of the CR spectrum up to the Perseus arm for particles with GeV to tens of GeV energies. The emissivity as a function of Galactocentric radius does not show a large enhancement in the spiral arms with respect to the interarm region. The measured emissivity gradient is flatter than expectations based on a CR propagation model using the radial distribution of supernova remnants and uniform diffusion properties. In this context, observations require a larger halo size and/or a flatter CR source distribution than usually assumed. The molecular mass calibrating ratio, X(CO) = N(H(2))/W(CO), is found to be (2.08 +/- 0.11) x 10(20) cm(-2)(K km s(-1))(-1) in the Local arm clouds and is not significantly sensitive to the choice of Hi spin temperature. No significant variations are found for clouds in the interarm region.
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9.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 339:6121, s. 807-811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs.
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10.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE STUDY OF COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 755:1, s. 22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission from the Chamaeleon, R Coronae Australis (R CrA), and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. They are among the nearest molecular cloud complexes, within similar to 300 pc from the solar system. The gamma-ray emission produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas in those molecular clouds is useful to study the CR densities and distributions of molecular gas close to the solar system. The obtained gamma-ray emissivities above 250 MeV are (5.9 +/- 0.1(stat-1.0sys)(+0.9)) x 10(-27) photons s(-1) sr(-1) H-atom(-1), (10.2 +/- 0.4(stat-1.7sys)(+1.2)) x 10(-27) photons s(-1) sr(-1) H-atom(-1), and (9.1 +/- 0.3(stat-0.6sys)(+1.5)) x 10(-27) photons s(-1) sr(-1) H-atom(-1) for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively. Whereas the energy dependences of the emissivities agree well with that predicted from direct CR observations at the Earth, the measured emissivities from 250 MeV to 10 GeV indicate a variation of the CR density by similar to 20% in the neighborhood of the solar system, even if we consider systematic uncertainties. The molecular mass calibrating ratio, X-CO = N(H-2)/W-CO, is found to be (0.96 +/- 0.06(stat-0.12sys)(+0.15)) x 10(20) H-2-molecule cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1), (0.99 +/- 0.08(stat-0.10sys)(+0.18)) x 10(20) H-2-molecule cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1), and (0.63 +/- 0.02(stat-0.07sys)(+0.09)) x 10(20) H-2-molecule cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1) for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively, suggesting a variation of X-CO in the vicinity of the solar system. From the obtained values of X-CO, the masses of molecular gas traced by W-CO in the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions are estimated to be similar to 5 x 10(3)M(circle dot), similar to 10(3)M(circle dot), and similar to 3.3 x 10(4)M(circle dot), respectively. A comparable amount of gas not traced well by standard Hi and CO surveys is found in the regions investigated.
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