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Sökning: WFRF:(Svensson Olof) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Dahl, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • The host defense peptide LL-37 triggers release of nucleic acids from human mast cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Peptides. - Elsevier. - 0196-9781. ; 109, s. 39-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human host defense peptide LL-37 possesses antimicrobial activity but also affects host cell function and viability. Mast cells are involved in innate immunity but no data have been presented on effects of LL-37 on human mast cell viability and export of nucleic acids. Here, we demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy that synthesized LL-37 was internalized by human LAD2 mast cells and detected both in cytoplasm and nucleus. Treatment with high (4 and 10 μM) but not low (1 μM) concentrations of LL-37 for 4 h reduced cell viability assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Stimulation with 10 μM LL-37 for 4 h enhanced export of nucleic acids, total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), suggesting that both nuclear and plasma membranes are permeabilized by LL-37. Although LL-37 triggered release of nucleic acids, no extracellular trap-like structures were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy of cells incubated with the plasma membrane impermeable nucleic acid fluorophore SYTOX-Green, indicating that LL-37 promotes export of nucleic acids but not formation of extracellular traps. On the other hand, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which is a well-known inducer of extracellular traps, stimulated export of nucleic acids and also formation of extracellular trap-like structures. However, PMA had no effect on export of either total protein or LDH. Hence, LL-37 and PMA seem to stimulate export of nucleic acids from LAD2 mast cells through different pathways. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LL-37 triggers release of nucleic acids from human mast cells but not the formation of extracellular trap-like structures.
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2.
  • Ren, Yansong, et al. (författare)
  • Multistimuli-Responsive Enaminitrile Molecular Switches Displaying H+-Induced Aggregate Emission, Metal Ion-Induced Turn-On Fluorescence, and Organogelation Properties
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0002-7863. ; 140:42, s. 13640-13643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multistimuli-responsive enaminitrile-based configurational switches displaying aggregation-induced emission (AIE), fluorescence turn-on effects, and super gelation properties are presented. The E-isomers dominated (>97%) in neutral/basic solution, and the structures underwent precisely controlled switching around the enamine C=C bond upon addition of acid/base. Specific fluorescence output was observed in response to different external input in the solution and solid states. In response to H+, configurational switching resulted in complete formation of the nonemissive Z-H+-isomers in solution, however displaying deep-blue to blue fluorescence (Phi(F) up to 0.41) in the solid state. In response to Cu-II in the solution state, the E-isomers exhibited intense, turn-on, blue-green fluorescence, which could be turned off by addition of competitive coordination. The acid/base-activated switching, together with the induced AIE-effects, further enabled the accomplishment of a responsive superorganogelator. In nonpolar solvents, a blue-fluorescent supramolecular gel was formed upon addition of acid to the E-isomer suspension. The gelation could be reversed by addition of base, and the overall, reversible process could be repeated at least five cycles.
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3.
  • Welin, Karl-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis patients in Sweden – Healthcare utilization, treatment, morbidity, and mortality using national register data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Seizure. - Elsevier. - 1059-1311. ; 53, s. 4-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose This study is designed to estimate the prevalence of epilepsy associated with TSC in Sweden and to describe treatment, morbidity, and mortality of TSC patients with epilepsy. Methods Register data for 2004–2014 was obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden. Patients with TSC were identified using ICD-10 codes. Epilepsy was identified using ICD-10 codes, interventions aimed to treat epilepsy, or prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs. Results The prevalence of TSC was 5.38 per 100 000 individuals. We identified 551 unique patients with TSC, of which 386 (70.1%) had epilepsy. The mean study period was 8.82 years. Antiepileptic drugs were dispensed to 97.9% of patients with epilepsy. The most prescribed antiepileptic drug was sodium valproate. Ketogenic diet was used in 6 (1.6%) patients, vagus nerve stimulation in 23 (6.0%) patients, and epilepsy surgery was performed in 25 (6.5%) patients. The mean number of outpatient visits per year was 4.70 (SD 4.17) and the mean number of inpatient days per year was 3.25 (SD 5.61). The mean number of outpatient visits per year with an ICD-10 code for epilepsy was 1.65 (SD 1.95) and the corresponding number of inpatient days was 2.06 (SD 4.50). A total of 30 patients with TSC and epilepsy died during the study period. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in this study was in the lower range of previously reported numbers, suggesting that epilepsy may be overestimated in non-population based studies. A substantial part of the healthcare utilization was directly related to epilepsy.
4.
  • Åsberg, Dennis, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • A quality control method enhancement concept : Continual improvement of regulatory approved QC methods
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. - Elsevier. - 0731-7085. ; 129, s. 273-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quality Control methods (QC-methods) play an important role in the overall control strategy for drug manufacturing. However, efficient life-cycle management and continual improvement are hindered due to a variety of post-approval variation legislations across territories and a lack of harmonization of the requirements. As a result, many QC-methods fall behind the technical development. Developing the QC-method in accordance with the Quality by Design guidelines gives the possibility to do continual improvements inside the original Method Operable Design Region (MODR). However, often it is necessary to do changes outside the MODR, e.g. to incorporate new technology that was not available at the time the original method was development. Here, we present a method enhancement concept which allows minor adjustments, within the same measuring principle, outside the original MODR without interaction with regulatory agencies. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by a case study of a QC-method based on HPLC, assumed to be developed before the introduction of UHPLC, where the switch from HPLC to UHPLC is necessary as a continual improvement strategy. The concept relies on the assumption that the System Suitability Test (SST) and failure modes are relevant for other conditions outside the MODR as well when the same measuring principle is used. It follows that it should be possible to move outside the MODR as long as the SST has passed. All minor modifications of the original, approved QC-method must be re-validated according to a template given in the original submission and a statistical equivalence should be shown between the original and modified QC-methods. To summarize, revalidation is handled within the pharmaceutical quality control system according to internal change control procedures, but without interaction with regulating agencies.
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5.
  • Aidoukovitch, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and its pro-form, hCAP18, in desquamated epithelial cells of human whole saliva
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0909-8836.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is active against oral bacteria and has been demonstrated to be present in human saliva, but its distribution in different fractions of saliva is not known. LL-37 is formed from its intracellular pro-form, hCAP18, in an extracellular enzymatic reaction catalyzed by proteinase 3 and kallikrein 5. Here, we prepared cell-containing and cell-free fractions of unstimulated human whole saliva by centrifugation after depolymerization of mucins with dithiothreitol, and measured the levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in these fractions using ELISA. Cellular expression of hCAP18/LL-37 was determined by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The ELISA analyses demonstrated that both cells and cell-free saliva contained hCAP18/LL-37. Western blot analysis of cell-pellet homogenates showed a strong band corresponding to hCAP18 at the correct molecular weight and a weak band corresponding to LL-37. Phase-contrast and light microscopy revealed that the cells consisted of desquamated epithelial cells. These cells expressed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for hCAP18/LL-37. The peripheral part of the cytoplasm, corresponding to the plasma membrane, was particularly rich in hCAP18/LL-37 immunoreactivity. No immunoreactivity was observed after omission of the primary antibody. We conclude that desquamated epithelial cells of human whole saliva contain antimicrobial hCAP18/LL-37, suggesting that these cells may take part in the innate immune system by harboring and releasing these peptides.
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6.
  • Aidoukovitch, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • The host defense peptide LL-37 is internalized by human periodontal ligament cells and prevents LPS-induced MCP-1 production
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Periodontal Research. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0022-3484. ; 54:6, s. 662-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The human host defense peptide LL-37 both shows antimicrobial effects and modulates host cell properties. Here, we assess the effects of synthesized LL-37 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and investigates underlying mechanisms. Background: LL-37 has been detected in the periodontal tissues, but its functional importance for PDL cell innate immune responses is not known. Methods: Human PDL cells were obtained from premolars extracted on orthodontic indications. Cellular pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. MCP-1 protein production was assessed by western blot and ELISA. Internalization of LL-37 by PDL cells was visualized by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-κB) activity was assessed by western blot of phosphorylated p65, phosphorylated p105, and IκBα proteins. Binding of LL-37 to PDL cell DNA was determined by isolation and purification of DNA and dot blot for LL-37 immunoreactivity. Results: Treatment with LL-37 (1 µmol/L) for 24 hours prevented LPS-induced stimulation of MCP-1 expression analyzed both on transcript and on protein levels. Stimulation with LL-37 (1 µmol/L) for 24 hours had no effect on toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 transcript expression, suggesting that LL-37 acts downstream of the TLRs. Preincubation with LL-37 for 60 minutes followed by stimulation with LPS for 24 hours in the absence of LL-37 completely prevented LPS-evoked MCP-1 transcript expression, implying that LL-37 acts intracellularly and not via binding and neutralization of LPS. In PDL cells stimulated with LL-37 for 60 minutes, the peptide was internalized as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, suggesting an intracellular mechanism of action. LL-37 immunoreactivity was observed both in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Downregulation of LPS-induced MCP-1 by LL-37 was not mediated by reduction in NF-κB activity as shown by unaltered expression of phosphorylated p65, phosphorylated p105, and IκBα NF-κB proteins in the presence of LL-37. Immunoreactivity for LL-37 was observed in PDL cell DNA treated with but not without 0.1 and 1 µmol/L LL-37 for 60 minutes in vitro. Conclusion: LL-37 abolishes LPS-induced MCP-1 production in human PDL cells through an intracellular, NF-κB-independent mechanism which probably involves direct interaction between LL-37 and DNA.
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7.
  • Anders, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Globular C1q receptor (p33) binds and stabilizes pro-inflammatory MCP-1 : a novel mechanism for regulation of MCP-1 production and function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press Limited. - 0264-6021. ; 475:4, s. 775-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The protein gC1qR (globular C1q receptor), also named p33, was originally identified as a binding partner of the globular heads of C1q in the complement system. gC1qR/p33 is abundantly expressed in many cell types, but the functional importance of this protein is not completely understood. Here, we investigate the impact of gC1qR/p33 on the production and function of the pathophysiologically important chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Knockdown of gC1qR/p33 negatively regulated the production of MCP-1, but had no effect on the expression of transcript for MCP-1 in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a translational/post-translational mechanism of action. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed considerable cytosolic co-localization of gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1, and co-immunoprecipitation disclosed direct physical interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a high-affinity binding (KD = 10.9 nM) between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Using a transwell migration assay, we found that recombinant gC1qR/p33 enhances MCP-1-induced migration of human THP-1 monocytes, pointing to a functional importance of the interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. An in vitro assay revealed a rapid turnover of the MCP-1 protein and that gC1qR/ p33 stabilizes MCP-1, hence preventing its degradation. We propose that endogenous gC1qR/p33 physically interacts with MCP-1 causing stabilization of the MCP-1 protein and stimulation of its activity in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a novel gC1qR/p33-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanism of action.
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8.
  • Anders, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • LL-37-induced human osteoblast cytotoxicity and permeability occurs independently of cellular LL-37 uptake through clathrin-mediated endocytosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. - Elsevier. - 0006-291X. ; 501:1, s. 280-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The host defense peptide LL-37 is cytotoxic for bacteria but it has also been reported to reduce host cell viability through an intracellular mechanism. LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity may be involved in the loss of bone tissue in periodontitis which is an inflammatory disease characterized by high concentrations of LL-37 observed locally in the periodontal tissue at the inflammation process. Here, we showed that LL-37 reduced human osteoblast-like MG63 cell viability assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and increased plasma membrane permeability determined by measuring intracellular Ca2+ levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Treatment with chlorpromazine, a well-recognized inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, reduced cellular uptake of synthesized LL-37 b y about 30% assessed by Western blotting and ELISA, while filipin, an inhibitor of caveolin-mediated endocytosis, had no effect. The chlorpromazine-induced attenuation of LL-37 uptake was not associated with modulation of LL-37-induced cytotoxicity and LL-37-evoked plasma membrane permeability. Clathrin heavy chain 2 is a major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles encoded by clathrin heavy chain like 1 gene. Down-regulation of clathrin heavy chain like 1 gene activity by siRNA reduced uptake of LL-37 but did not affect LL-37-induced cytotoxicity and permeability. Thus, we show, using both a pharmacological approach and knockdown of clathrin heavy chain like 1 expression, that LL-37-induced MG63 cell cytotoxicity and permeability occurs independently of LL-37 uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
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9.
  • Baravdish, George, et al. (författare)
  • Damped second order flow applied to image denoising
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0272-4960 .- 1464-3634. ; 84:6, s. 1082-1111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we introduce a new image denoising model: the damped flow (DF), which is a second order nonlinear evolution equation associated with a class of energy functionals of an image. The existence, uniqueness and regularization property of DF are proven. For the numerical implementation, based on the Stormer-Verlet method, a discrete DF, SV-DDF, is developed. The convergence of SV-DDF is studied as well. Several numerical experiments, as well as a comparison with other methods, are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of SV-DDF.
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10.
  • Baravdish, George, et al. (författare)
  • Extension of p-Laplace Operator for Image Denoising
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: 27th IFIP TC 7 Conference, CSMO 2015, Sophia Antipolis, France, June 29 - July 3, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. - Springer. - 9783319557946 - 9783319557953 ; s. 107-116
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this work we introduce a novel operator $$\displaystyle \varDelta _(p,q)$$ as an extended family of operators that generalize the p-Laplace operator. The operator is derived with an emphasis on image processing applications, and particularly, with a focus on image denoising applications. We propose a non-linear transition function, coupling p and q, which yields a non-linear filtering scheme analogous to adaptive spatially dependent total variation and linear filtering. Well-posedness of the final parabolic PDE is established via pertubation theory and connection to classical results in functional analysis. Numerical results demonstrates the applicability of the novel operator $$\displaystyle \varDelta _(p,q)$$ .
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