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  • Fors, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopic properties of Amazonian biomass burning and European background HULIS and investigation of their effects on surface tension with two models linking H-TDMA to CCNC data
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus. - 1680-7316. ; 10:12, s. 5625-5639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS) have been identified as major contributors to the organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol. The term "HULIS" is used to describe the organic material found in aerosol particles that resembles the humic organic material in rivers and sea water and in soils. In this study, two sets of filter samples from atmospheric aerosols were collected at different sites. One set of samples was collected at the K-puszta rural site in Hungary, about 80 km SE of Budapest, and a second was collected at a site in Rondonia, Amazonia, Brazil, during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC) biomass burning season experiment. HULIS were extracted from the samples and their hygroscopic properties were studied using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) at relative humidity (RH) < 100%, and a cloud condensation nucleus counter (CCNC) at RH > 100%. The H-TDMA measurements were carried out at a dry diameter of 100 nm and for RH ranging from 30 to 98%. At 90% RH the HULIS samples showed diameter growth factors between 1.04 and 1.07, reaching values of 1.4 at 98% RH. The cloud nucleating properties of the two sets of aerosol samples were analysed using two types of thermal static cloud condensation nucleus counters. Two different parameterization models were applied to investigate the potential effect of HULIS surface activity, both yielding similar results. For the K-puszta winter HULIS sample, the surface tension at the point of activation was estimated to be lowered by between 34% (47.7 mN/m) and 31% (50.3 mN/m) for dry sizes between 50 and 120 nm in comparison to pure water. A moderate lowering was also observed for the entire water soluble aerosol sample, including both organic and inorganic compounds, where the surface tension was decreased by between 2% (71.2 mN/m) and 13% (63.3 mN/m).
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  • Fors, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosol in southern Sweden - a two year study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus GmbH. - 1680-7316. ; 11:16, s. 8343-8361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hygroscopic growth of the atmospheric aerosol is a critical parameter for quantifying the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Until now, there has been a lack of long term measurements due to limitations in instrumental techniques. In this work, for the first time the seasonal variation of the hygroscopic properties of a continental background aerosol has been described, based on more than two years of continuous measurements. In addition to this, the diurnal variation of the hygroscopic growth has been investigated, as well as the seasonal variation in CCN concentration. These physical properties of the aerosol have been measured with a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA), a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC). The results show that smaller particles are generally less hygroscopic than larger ones, and that there is a clear difference in the hygroscopic properties between the Aitken and the accumulation mode. A seasonal cycle was found for all particle sizes. In general, the average hygroscopic growth is lower during wintertime, due to an increase in the relative abundance of less hygroscopic or barely hygroscopic particles. Monthly averages showed that the hygroscopic growth factors of the two dominating hygroscopic modes (one barely hygroscopic and one more hygroscopic) were relatively stable. The hygroscopic growth additionally showed a diurnal cycle, with higher growth factors during day time. CCN predictions based on H-TDMA data underpredicted the activated CCN number concentration with 7% for a 1% water supersaturation ratio. The underprediction increases with decreasing s, most likely due to a combination of measurement and modeling uncertainties. It was found that although the aerosol is often externally mixed, recalculating to an internal mixture with respect to hygroscopicity did not change the CCN concentration as a function of supersaturation significantly.
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  • Genberg, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in southern Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus GmbH. - 1680-7316. ; 11:22, s. 11387-11400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A one-year study was performed at the Vavihill background station in southern Sweden to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the carbonaceous aerosol. Weekly samples of the particulate matter PM10 were collected on quartz filters, and the amounts of organic carbon, elemental carbon, radiocarbon (C-14) and levoglucosan were measured. This approach enabled source apportionment of the total carbon in the PM10 fraction using the concentration ratios of the sources. The sources considered in this study were emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, as well as biogenic sources. During the summer, the carbonaceous aerosol mass was dominated by compounds of biogenic origin (80 %), which are associated with biogenic primary and secondary organic aerosols. During the winter months, biomass combustion (32 %) and fossil fuel combustion (28 %) were the main contributors to the carbonaceous aerosol. Elemental carbon concentrations in winter were about twice as large as during summer, and can be attributed to biomass combustion, probably from domestic wood burning. The contribution of fossil fuels to elemental carbon was stable throughout the year, although the fossil contribution to organic carbon increased during the winter. Thus, the organic aerosol originated mainly from natural sources during the summer and from anthropogenic sources during the winter. The result of this source apportionment was compared with results from the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model. The model and measurements were generally consistent for total atmospheric organic carbon, however, the contribution of the sources varied substantially. E.g. the biomass burning contributions of OC were underestimated by the model by a factor of 2.2 compared to the measurements.
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