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Sökning: WFRF:(Teichmann C.)

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  • Clark, Andrew G., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 450:7167, s. 203-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species.
  • Emde, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 109:D24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article describes one of the scattering algorithms of the three-dimensional polarized radiative transfer model ARTS (Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator) which has been implemented to study for example the influence of cirrus clouds on microwave limb sounding. The model uses the DOIT (Discrete Ordinate Iterative) method to solve the vector radiative transfer equation. The implementation of a discrete ordinate method is challenging due to the spherical geometry of the model atmosphere which is required for the simulation of limb radiances. The involved numerical issues, which are grid optimization and interpolation methods, are discussed in this paper. Scattering simulations are presented for limb- and down-looking geometries, for one-dimensional and three-dimensional spherical atmospheres. They show the impact of cloud particle size, shape, and orientation on the brightness temperatures and on the polarization of microwave radiation in the atmosphere. The cloud effect is much larger for limb radiances than for nadir radiances. Particle size is a very important parameter in all simulations. The polarization signal is negligible for simulations with completely randomly oriented particles, whereas for horizontally aligned particles with random azimuthal orientation the polarization signal is significant. Moreover, the effect of particle shape is only relevant for oriented cloud particles. The simulations show that it is essential to use a three-dimensional scattering model for inhomogeneous cloud layers.
  • Loos, Ruth J. F., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; 40:6, s. 768-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits.
  • Teichmann, C., et al. (författare)
  • Understanding the polarization signal of spherical particles for microwave limb radiances
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer. - Pergamon. - 0022-4073. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a simple conceptual model to explain that even spherical scatterers lead to a polarization difference signal for microwave limb radiances. The conceptual model relates the polarization difference measured by a limb-looking sensor situated inside a cloud with the anisotropy of the radiation. In the simulations, it was assumed that the cloud consists of spherical ice particles with a radius of ...
  • Liberles, David A., et al. (författare)
  • The interface of protein structure, protein biophysics, and molecular evolution
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Protein Science. - 0961-8368. ; 21:6, s. 769-785
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The interface of protein structural biology, protein biophysics, molecular evolution, and molecular population genetics forms the foundations for a mechanistic understanding of many aspects of protein biochemistry. Current efforts in interdisciplinary protein modeling are in their infancy and the state-of-the art of such models is described. Beyond the relationship between amino acid substitution and static protein structure, protein function, and corresponding organismal fitness, other considerations are also discussed. More complex mutational processes such as insertion and deletion and domain rearrangements and even circular permutations should be evaluated. The role of intrinsically disordered proteins is still controversial, but may be increasingly important to consider. Protein geometry and protein dynamics as a deviation from static considerations of protein structure are also important. Protein expression level is known to be a major determinant of evolutionary rate and several considerations including selection at the mRNA level and the role of interaction specificity are discussed. Lastly, the relationship between modeling and needed high-throughput experimental data as well as experimental examination of protein evolution using ancestral sequence resurrection and in vitro biochemistry are presented, towards an aim of ultimately generating better models for biological inference and prediction.
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