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Sökning: WFRF:(Thulin P)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 28
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  • Johansson, L, et al. (författare)
  • Cathelicidin LL-37 in Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Soft Tissue Infections in Humans
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Infection and Immunity. - American Society for Microbiology. - 0019-9567 .- 1098-5522. ; 76:8, s. 3399-3404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and severe cellulitis, caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) are rapidly progressing life-threatening infections characterized by massive bacterial load in the tissue even late after onset of infection. Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the innate host defence and cathelicidins have been shown to protect against murine necrotic skin infection caused by GAS. However, the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB has been demonstrated to proteolytically inactivate the human cathelicidin LL-37 in vitro. Here we have investigated the expression of LL-37 and its interaction with GAS and SpeB during acute severe soft tissue infections by analyses of patient tissue biopsies. The results showed high amounts of LL-37, both the proform (hCAP18) and the mature peptide, present in the tissue. Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils as the main source of the peptide. A distinct co-localization between the bacteria and LL-37 could be noted, and bacterial load showed a positive correlation to the LL-37 levels. Areas with high LL-37 levels coincided with areas with high amounts of SpeB. Confocal microscopy confirmed a strong co-localization of GAS, SpeB and LL-37 at the bacterial surface. Taken together the findings of this study provides in vivo support that SpeB-mediated inactivation of LL-37 at the streptococcal surface represent a bacterial resistance mechanism at the infected tissue site in patients with severe GAS tissue infections.
  • Braunerhjelm, P, et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between domestic and outward foreign direct investment: The role of industry-specific effects
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Business Review. - Elsevier. - 0969-5931 .- 1873-6149. ; 14:6, s. 677-694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has been inconclusive as regards the effect of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on domestic investments. In this article, we show that this inconclusiveness can be explained at a disaggregated level as a function of the way industries are organized. Based on a simple theoretical framework including monitoring and trade costs, we argue that a complementary relationship can be expected to prevail in vertically integrated industries, whereas a substitutionary relationship can be expected in horizontally organized production. The empirical analysis confirms a significant difference between the two categories of industry as regards the impact of outward FDI on domestic investment. The results may thus have profound policy implications. JEL no. F12, F21, F23, G34.
  • Johansson, L, et al. (författare)
  • HMGB1 in severe soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. - Frontiers. - 2235-2988. ; 4:Jan 30, s. 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) has been associated with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, little is known about HMGB1 in necrotizing bacterial infections. We hypothesized that the local HMGB1 response is excessive in severe soft tissue infections (STIs), which are characterized by necrosis and hyperinflammation. To explore this, tissue biopsies were collected from patients with varying severity of Streptococcus pyogenes skin and STIs, including erysipelas, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Tissue sections were immunostained for HMGB1, S. pyogenes, and inflammatory cell infiltrates and results quantified by acquired computerized image analysis (ACIA). HMGB1 expression increased in parallel to disease severity and was significantly higher in necrotizing fasciitis than in erysipelas (p = 0.0023). Confocal microscopy of sections co-stained for HMGB1 and cell markers revealed both extracellular and cytoplasmic HMGB1, the latter of which was found predominantly in macrophages. To further verify macrophages as main source of activation triggered HMGB1 release, human macrophages were infected with clinical S. pyogenes isolates. The results demonstrated infection triggered release of HMGB1. Dual staining's visualized HMGB1 in areas close to, but not overlapping, with neutrophils, indicating a potential chemotactic role. In vitro transmigration experiments showed a chemotactic effect of HMGB1 on neutrophils. The data furthermore provided in vivo support that HGMB1 may form immunostimulatory complexes with IL-1β. Taken together, the findings provide the first in vivo evidence that HMGB1 is abundant at the local site of severe bacterial STIs and its levels correlated to severity of infections; hence, indicating its potential value as a biomarker for tissue pathology.
  • Linder, A, et al. (författare)
  • Erysipelas Caused by Group A Streptococcus Activates the Contact System and Induces the Release of Heparin-Binding Protein.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. - 1523-1747 .- 0022-202X. ; 130, s. 1365-1372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacterial skin infections, such as erysipelas or cellulitis, are characterized by fever and a painful erythematous rash. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This is partly due to the fact that a bacterial diagnosis is often difficult to attain. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of erysipelas, we investigated the samples obtained from infected and noninfected areas of skin from 12 patients with erysipelas. Bacterial cultures, detection of specific streptococcal antibodies in convalescent sera, and immunohistochemical analyses of biopsies indicated group A streptococcal etiology in 11 of the 12 patients. Also, electron micrographs of erythematous skin confirmed the presence of group A streptococcal cells and showed a limited solubilization of the surface-attached M protein. Degradation of high-molecular-weight kininogen and upregulation of the bradykinin-1 receptor in inflamed tissues indicated activation of the contact system in 11 patients. Analyses of release of the vasoactive heparin-binding protein (HBP) showed increased levels in the infected as compared with the noninfected areas. The results suggest that group A streptococci induce contact activation and HBP release during skin infection, which likely contribute to the symptoms seen in erysipelas: fever, pain, erythema, and edema.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 28 January 2010; doi:10.1038/jid.2009.437.
  • Aminoff, A, et al. (författare)
  • Allele-specific regulation of MTTP expression influences the risk of ischemic heart disease.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of lipid research. - 0022-2275. ; 51:1, s. 103-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Promoter polymorphisms in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) have been associated with decreased plasma lipids but an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD), indicating that MTTP influences the susceptibility for IHD independent of plasma lipids. The objective of this study was to characterize the functional promoter polymorphism in MTTP predisposing to IHD and its underlying mechanism. Use of pyrosequencing technology revealed that presence of the minor alleles of the promoter polymorphisms -493G>T and -164T>C result in lower transcription of MTTP in vivo in the heart, liver, and macrophages. In vitro experiments indicated that the minor -164C allele mediates the lower gene expression and that C/EBP binds to the polymorphic region in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, homozygous carriers of the -164C were found to have increased risk for IHD as shown in a case-control study including a total of 544 IHD patients and 544 healthy control subjects. We concluded that carriers of the minor -164C allele have lower expression of MTTP in the heart, mediated at least partly by the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, and that reduced concentration of MTTP in the myocardium may contribute to IHD upon ischemic damage.
  • Boyce, SW, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibition by cariporide on death or myocardial infarction in high-risk CABG surgery patients: Results of the CABG surgery cohort of the GUARDIAN study
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. - American Association for Thoracic Surgery. - 0022-5223. ; 126:2, s. 420-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To evaluate the effects of cariporide on all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction at 36 days in patients at risk,of myocardial necrosis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods: In the coronary artery bypass graft cohort of the GUARD During Ischemia Against Necrosis trial, patients greater than or equal to 18 years who required urgent coronary artery bypass graft, repeat coronary artery bypass graft, or had a history of unstable angina and 2 :2 risk factors (age >65 years, female gender, diabetes mellitus, ejection fraction <35%, or left main or 3-vessel disease) were randomized to placebo (n = 743) or cariporide 20 mg (n = 736), 80 mg (n = 705), or 120 mg (n = 734). A 1-hour intravenous infusion was initiated shortly before surgery and administered every 8 hours for 2 to 7 days. Patients were followed up for 6 months. A nonparametric covariance analysis was used to calculate the primary efficacy endpoint. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. The cariporide 20- and 80-mg groups had event rates similar to placebo. The endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction at day 36 was significant with cariporide 120 mg versus placebo (event rate 12.2% vs 16.2%; P = .027). The risk reduction was evident on postoperative day 1 (3.3% vs 6.5%; P = .005) and was maintained at 6 months (event rate 15.0% vs 18.6%; P = .033). Cariporide was well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild and transient in this high-risk population. Conclusions: Clinical benefit with cariporide 120 mg was observed early after treatment initiation and continued for 6 months postsurgery, suggesting that sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibition with cariporide is cardioprotective in patients undergoing high-risk coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
  • Goscinski, G, et al. (författare)
  • Release of SpeA from Streptococcus pyogenes after exposure to penicillin : dependency on dose and inhibition by clindamycin
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0036-5548. ; 38:11-12, s. 983-987
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The amount and time course of SpeA release from group A streptococci (GAS) was studied at different starting inoculae after exposure to different doses of penicillin, clindamycin or a combination of the 2. The release was related to the bacterial concentration and killing rate. A clinical GAS strain was exposed to benzylpenicillin, 2 and 1000 × MIC, clindamycin, 2 and 32 × MIC, or combinations of the 2. Samples for viable counts and SpeA analyses were drawn before and after the addition of antibiotics and at 3, 6 and 24 h. The SpeA release was higher at low than at high concentrations of penicillin and the combination (both, p < 0.05). The addition of clindamycin to penicillin reduced SpeA production at both concentrations (p < 0.01). Most SpeA was released before 3 h, and for penicillin and the combination, the amount correlated to the number of killed bacteria during this period (r = 0.50; p < 0.05). A positive correlation was found between the inoculum size and the SpeA concentration at time zero (r = 0.54; p < 0.05). The SpeA concentration was dependent on the initial number of bacteria, the class of antibiotic, the dose of penicillin and the killing rate.
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