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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Träskman Bendz Lil Professor) srt2:(2015-2016)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Träskman Bendz Lil Professor) > (2015-2016)

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1.
  • Humble, Mats B., 1952- (författare)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder, serotonin and oxytocin treatment response and side effects
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with a prevalence of 1-2 %, frequently leads a chronic course. Persons with OCD are often reluctant to seek help and, if they do, their OCD is often missed. This is unfortunate, since active treatment may substantially improve social function and quality of life. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) have welldocumented efficacy in OCD, but delayed response may be problematic. Methods to predict response have been lacking. Because SRIs are effective, pathophysiological research on OCD has focussed on serotonin. However, no clear aberrations of serotonin have been found, thus other mechanisms ought to be involved.</p><p>Our aims were to facilitate clinical detection and assessment of OCD, to search for biochemical correlates of response and side-effects in SRI treatment of OCD and to identify any possible involvement of oxytocin in the pathophysiology of OCD.</p><p>In study I, we tested in 402 psychiatric out-patients the psychometric properties of a concise rating scale, “Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale” (BOCS). BOCS was shown to be easy to use and have excellent discriminant validity in relation to other common psychiatric diagnoses.</p><p>Studies II-V were based on 36 OCD patients from a randomised controlled trial of paroxetine, clomipramine or placebo. In study II, contrary to expectation, we found that the change (decrease) of serotonin in whole blood was most pronounced in non-responders to SRI. This is likely to reflect inflammatory influence on platelet turnover rather than serotonergic processes within the central nervous system.</p><p>In studies IV-V, we found relations between changes of oxytocin in plasma and the anti-obsessive response, and between oxytocin and the SRI related delay of orgasm, respectively. In both cases, the relation to central oxytocinergic mechanisms is unclear. In males, delayed orgasm predicted anti-obsessive response.</p>
2.
  • Iliadis, Stavros I, 1983- (författare)
  • Personality and the HPA-axis in Association with Postpartum Depression
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Postpartum depression is a psychiatric disorder affecting a substantial proportion of newly delivered women, and remains a significant cause of childbirth-related morbidity. The aim of the present thesis was to examine psychological, endocrine and genetic aspects of postpartum depression in a large, population-based sample of women in Uppsala, Sweden. All included studies were undertaken as parts of the BASIC-project, a longitudinal study on psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Study participants were screened for depressive symptoms in pregnancy week 17 and 32 as well as at six weeks and six months postpartum, mainly by use of the Swedish version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Furthermore, personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scale of Personality (SSP) in pregnancy week 32. Evening cortisol levels in saliva were measured in pregnancy week 36 and at six weeks postpartum. Blood samples were obtained to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone levels (CRH) and to perform genetic analyses. The results of this thesis demonstrate that neuroticism is a strong and independent predictive factor of depressive symptoms at six weeks and six months postpartum, and has a significant mediatory role in the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene (<em>HSD11B1</em>) and postpartum depression. Furthermore, women with postpartum depressive symptoms present with a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in terms of elevated cortisol levels postpartum, as well as elevated CRH levels in mid-gestation. In conclusion, this thesis develops current knowledge on several attributes of postpartum depression. Further studies are required to replicate and expand on these results, which would further contribute to early identification of women at risk of postpartum depression and adoption of proper interventions that may moderate the short- and long-term consequences of the disorder.</p>
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