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Sökning: WFRF:(Tuvemo Torsten Docent) > (2005-2009)

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  • Berg, Anna-Karin, 1976- (författare)
  • Enterovirus Infections of β-Cells A Mechanism of Induction of Type 1 Diabetes?
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The process of β-cell destruction that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is incompletely understood and it is believed to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. Enterovirus (EV) infections of the β-cells have been proposed to be involved, however, the effects of EV infections on human β-cells have been little investigated. This thesis summarises studies of three different Coxsackie B4 virus strains that have previously been shown to infect human islets. The effects of infections with these EV were studied <i>in vitro</i> in human islets and in a rat insulin-producing cell line. In addition, a pilot study was performed on isolated human islets to investigate the ability to treat such infections with an antiviral compound.</p><p>It was found that one of the virus strains replicated in human β-cells without affecting their main function for at least seven days, which <i>in vivo</i> may increase a virus’s ability to persist in islets.</p><p>Nitric oxide was induced by synthetic dsRNA, poly(IC), but not by viral dsRNA in rat insulinoma cells in the presence of IFN-γ, suggesting that this mediator is not induced by EV infection in β-cells and that poly(IC) does not mimic an EV infection in this respect.</p><p>All three virus strains were able to induce production of the T-cell chemoattractant interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) during infection of human islets, suggesting that an EV infection of the islets might trigger insulitis <i>in vivo</i>.</p><p>Antiviral treatment was feasible in human islets, but one strain was resistant to the antiviral compound used in this study.</p><p>To conclude, a potential mechanism is suggested for the involvement of EV infections in T1D. If EV infections induce IP-10 production in human islet cells <i>in vivo</i>, they might recruit immune cells to the islets. Together with viral persistence and/or virus-induced β-cell damage, this might trigger further immune-mediated β-cell destruction <i>in vivo</i>.</p>
  • Elmund, Anna Mi Ra, 1967- (författare)
  • Overrepresentation of Internationally Adopted Adolescents in Swedish §12-institutions
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In order to study internationally adopted delinquents, internationally adopted controls, delinquent controls and an additional group of healthy non-adopted, non-delinquent controls, the following tests were used: WISC/WAIS, TOL, WCST, a questionnaire, I think I am, ISSI, an attachment test, KSP, and SCL-90. In the register study, data were obtained from the registers of The National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Odds ratios (OR) for different forms of out-of-home care placements were calculated.</p><p>It was found that the adopted delinquents had a significantly lower full scale IQ (WISC/WAIS) and significantly lower results on several measurements in the WISC /WAIS compared to the adopted controls. In addition, both groups of adoptees scored low in the WISC/WAIS subscale arithmetics when compared to the population mean. The adopted delinquents clearly had disruptive and infectious relations to their parents which was demonstrated in I think I am, ISSI, the attachment test and the questionnaire. The adopted controls demonstrated good relations to adoptive parents. When personality and self-perception were measured and analyzed in a two-way ANOVA, the results clearly pointed to ”delinquency” as the explaining factor to the variance of the results as opposed to ”adoption”. </p><p>Finally, the regression analyses of the register data demonstrated an OR of 3.0 (after adjustments for age and sex) for placements of intercountry adoptees in residental care from age 10 and an OR of 5.1 in model 2 (after adjustments for socio-demographic background variables). More over, higher child age at adoption, origin from Latin America, single parent adoption and maternal age above 35 at birth of the child were identified as significant predictors of out-of-home care from age 10.</p>
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