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Sökning: WFRF:(Tvingstedt Kristofer)

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1.
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2.
  • Andersson, Viktor, et al. (författare)
  • Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - 0021-8979. ; 103:9, s. 094520
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The optical behavior of a reflective tandem solar cell (V cell) is modeled by means of finite element method (FEM) simulations. The absorption of solar light in the active material as well as in both electrode layers is calculated. The FEM solves the electromagnetic wave equation on the entire defined geometry, resulting in the consideration of interference effects, as well as effects of refraction and reflection. Both single cells and tandem cells are modeled and confirmed to be in accordance with reflectance measurements. Energy dissipation in the active layers is studied as a function of layer thickness and folding angle, and the simulations clearly display the advantage of the light trapping feature of folded cells. This is especially prominent in cells with thinner active layers, where folding induces absorption in the active layer equivalent to that of much thicker cells.
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3.
  • Bergqvist, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The rapid progress of organic photovoltaic devices during the last decade, with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 8%, has brought the technology close to an industrial breakthrough. For polymer solar cells, roll to roll printing is desired to gain the production advantage. The formation of the photoactive material from solutions needs to be controlled and optimized. Therefore a suitable method to monitor the deposition process is needed as deviations of drying times1 and drying rates2 during the coating process have proven to generate morphology variations causing variations in photocurrent generation.Here we demonstrate how reflectance imaging can be used to monitor the drying process, both for spin coating and blade coating deposition. A blue LED is used as light source to generate specular reflections imaged by a CMOS camera. The thinning of the wet film can then be observed by thin film interference, and can be recorded for each pixel. This enables an estimation of the evaporation rate for each pixel mapped over the substrate. For spin coating the evaporation rate is shown to increase with the distance from the rotation center, whereas the air flow is the determining parameter during blade coating. By mapping the times when interference ceases, lateral variations in drying time are visualized. Furthermore the quenching of polymer photoluminescence during the drying process can be visualized, thus creating a possibility to estimate morphological variations. Moreover lateral thickness variations of the dry film can be visualized by scanning ellipsometry. After depositing a top electrode photocurrent images can be generated by a laser scanning method. This allows for a direct comparison of drying conditions and photocurrent generation.  The possibility to monitor the thin film formation as well as lateral variations in thickness in-situ by a non-invasive method, is an important step for future large scale applications where stable high performing generating morphologies have to be formed over large areas.1Schmidt-Hansberg, B.; Sanyal, M.; Klein, M.F.G.; Pfaff, M.; Schnabel, N.; Jaiser, S.; Vorobiev, A.; Müller, E.; Colsmann, A.; Scharfer, P.; Gerthsen, D.; Lemmer, U.; Barrena, E.; and Schabel, W., ACS Nano 5 , 2011, 8579-8590<h2>2 Hou, L.; Wang, E.; Bergqvist, J.; Andersson, V.B.; Wang, Z.; Müller, C.; Campoy-Quiles, M.; Andersson, M.R.; Zhang, F.; Inganäs, O.,Adv. Func. Mat. 21 , 2011, 3169–3175</h2>
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4.
  • Bergqvist, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution deposition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. - Elsevier. - 0927-0248. ; 114, s. 89-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work we present reflectance imaging as a suitable method for in situ monitoring of the drying process of film formation for organic photovoltaics (OPV) over large areas, as well as for lab-scale spin-coating. The drying wet film is illuminated with a narrow bandwidth LED with the specularly reflected light recorded by a video camera as the film dries and forms the active layer of the OPV cell. The interference fringes generated by the thinning wet film can be used to measure the rate of solvent evaporation and the drying time. Subsequent mapping elucidates variations in drying conditions over the substrate, which lead to variations in morphology formation. The technique is suitable for tracking thickness variations of the dry film, with a sensitivity of 10 nm, by comparing the intensity of the reflected light from the dry film to simulated interference conditions calculated for each thickness. The drying process is furthermore accurately simulated by an optical model considering the changes in refractive index as the amount of solvent decreases with respect to the solid content. This non-invasive in situ method represents an important monitoring tool for future large scale OPV manufacturing where high performing morphologies with uniform thickness have to be formed over very large areas.
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5.
  • Dal Zilio, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING. - 0167-9317. ; 86:4-6, s. 1150-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) are among the most promising systems for energy extraction and conversion from renewable energy sources. However, major problem to be solved before industrial production could become economically viable is represented by their still low conversion efficiency. The organic solar cell architectures are presently the result of a compromise between achieving complete light absorption using active layers that are thicker than the optical absorption length and achieving efficient charge collection at the electrodes which is favoured in thinner layers. We present a concept and its experimental demonstration that would solve efficiently the above trade-off problem by making use of a new type of light trapping elements. The simple fabrication scheme, based on a self-aligned UV exposure process, suggests its potential up-scalability to large systems, at low production cost.
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6.
  • Gadisa, Abay, et al. (författare)
  • Bipolar Charge Transport in Fullerene Molecules in a Bilayer and Blend of Polyfluorene Copolymer and Fullerene
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ADVANCED MATERIALS. - 0935-9648. ; 22:9, s. 1008
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Efficient polymer solar cells typically contain the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), which promotes dissociation of excited states and enhances charge transport. The ability of PCBM to transport holes in solar cell bulk heterojunction films is monitored via the electroluminescence emission of a bulk heterojunction blend of PCBM and a polyfluorene copolymer. In polymer/fullerene bilayer diodes, fullerene emission is also observed.
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7.
  • Gadisa, Abay, et al. (författare)
  • Transparent polymer cathode for organic photovoltaic devices
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Synthetic metals. - 0379-6779. ; 156:16-17, s. 1102-1107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate a prototype solar cell with a transparent polymer cathode, and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly (styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) anode. As an active layer, thin film of a bulk heterojunction of polyfluorene copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2thienyl-2′,1′3′-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and an electron acceptor molecule [6] and [6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (1:4 wt.) was sandwiched between the two transparent polymer electrodes. The cathode is another form of PEDOT formed by vapor phase polymerised PEDOT (VPP PEDOT) of conductivity 102–103 S/cm. The cathode is supported on an elastomeric substrate, and forms a conformal contact to the APFO-3/PCBM blend. Transparent solar cells are useful for building multilayer and tandem solar cells.
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8.
  • Inganäs, Olle, et al. (författare)
  • Polymer Photovoltaics with Alternating Copolymer/Fullerene Blends and Novel Device Architectures
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Advanced Materials. - 0935-9648. ; 22:20, s. 100-116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The synthesis of novel conjugated polymers, designed for the purpose of photovoltaic energy conversion, and their properties in polymer/fullerene materials and photovoltaic devices are reviewed. Two families of main chain polymer donors, based on fluorene or phenylene and donor-acceptor-donor comonomers in alternating copolymers, are used to absorb the high-energy parts of the solar spectrum and to give high photovoltages in combinations with fullerene acceptors in devices. These materials are used in alternative photovoltaic device geometries with enhanced light incoupling to collect larger photocurrents or to enable tandem devices and enhance photovoltage.
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9.
  • Krebs, Frederik C, et al. (författare)
  • A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS. - 0927-0248. ; 93:11, s. 1968-1977
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Riso DTU) followed by transportation to a participating laboratory for performance measurement and return to the starting location (Riso DTU) for re-measurement of the performance. It was found possible to package polymer solar-cell modules using a flexible plastic barrier material in such a manner that degradation of the devices played a relatively small role in the experiment that has taken place over 4 months. The method of transportation followed both air-mail and surface-mail paths.
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10.
  • Li, Weiwei, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of additive on performance and shelf-stability of HSX-1/PCBM photovoltaic devices
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Organic electronics. - Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.. - 1566-1199. ; 12:9, s. 1544-1551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) enhances performance of polymer solar cells based on polymer HXS-1 and fullerene [6,6]-phenyl C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM) from 3.6% to 5.4% is scrutinized with several techniques by comparing devices or blend films spin-coated from dichlorobenzene (DCB) to those from DCB/DIO (97.5:2.5 v/v). Morphology of blend films is examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (3-D TEM), respectively. Charge generation and recombination is studied with photoluminescence, and charge transport with field effect transistors. The morphology with domain size in 10-20 nm and vertical elongated clusters formed in DIO system is supposed to facilitate charge transport and minimize charge carrier recombination, which are the main reasons for enhancing power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.6% (without DIO) to 5.4% (with DIO). Furthermore, a two year inspection shows no significant impact of DIO on the shelf-stability of the solar cells. No visible degradation in the second year indicates that the morphology of the active layers in the devices is relatively stable after initial relaxation in the first year.
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