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Sökning: WFRF:(Waterhouse L.) > (2015)

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1.
  • Sadd, Ben M., et al. (författare)
  • The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906. ; 16:76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats.RESULTS: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits.CONCLUSIONS: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.
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2.
  • Zhao, Chaoyang, et al. (författare)
  • A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0445. ; 25:5, s. 613-620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation.
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4.
  • Fishwick, D., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of health-related quality of life among residents with and without COPD in a historically industrialised area
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - 0340-0131. ; 88:6, s. 799-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with substantial morbidity, including impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Despite the prominent role of occupational factors in the aetiology of COPD, the relationship between these exposures and HRQoL has not been well elucidated. A subpopulation from an epidemiological study, designed to assess the workplace contribution to COPD, was administered the EQ5D HRQoL tool. Demographics, an index of economic deprivation, health endpoints including the presence of COPD and lung function were also recorded. Workplace exposures were categorised using both self-reported exposures and also by the use of an established job exposure matrix (JEM). A total of 623 individuals participated (mean age 67.1 years). One hundred and forty-eight (24 %) reported having received a physician diagnosis of COPD, 355 (57 %) were male, and 386 (62 %) were ever smokers. As anticipated, the presence of COPD was associated with a poorer HRQoL. Additionally, however, HRQoL was significantly lower in the presence of both self-reported vapours, gases, dusts and fumes exposure and JEM-based exposure irrespective of the presence of COPD. Regression analysis, adjusting for a variety of covariates including the presence of COPD, confirmed a persisting higher likelihood of occupational exposure categorised by JEM being associated with poorer HRQoL scores (beta estimate: -0.069; p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that work may have an important link to HRQoL and that this effect can persist even among those who have retired. In those with COPD, HRQoL is worse than among those without this condition, but the work-associated decrement appears to be similar across both groups.
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