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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Waters J. W.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Waters J. W.)

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1.
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2.
  • Feroci, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental Astronomy. - 0922-6435. ; 34:2, s. 415-444
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m(2)-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant diagnostics and answer two of the fundamental questions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision Theme "Matter under extreme conditions", namely: does matter orbiting close to the event horizon follow the predictions of general relativity? What is the equation of state of matter in neutron stars? The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionise the study of collapsed objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Thanks to an innovative design and the development of large-area monolithic silicon drift detectors, the Large Area Detector (LAD) on board LOFT will achieve an effective area of similar to 12 m(2) (more than an order of magnitude larger than any spaceborne predecessor) in the 2-30 keV range (up to 50 keV in expanded mode), yet still fits a conventional platform and small/medium-class launcher. With this large area and a spectral resolution of < 260 eV, LOFT will yield unprecedented information on strongly curved spacetimes and matter under extreme conditions of pressure and magnetic field strength.
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4.
  • Botticella, M. T., et al. (författare)
  • Supernova 2009kf : An Ultraviolet Bright Type IIP Supernova Discovered with Pan-STARRS 1 and GALEX
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 717, s. L52-L56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a luminous Type IIP Supernova (SN) 2009kf discovered by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) survey and also detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The SN shows a plateau in its optical and bolometric light curves, lasting approximately 70 days in the rest frame, with an absolute magnitude of M V = -18.4 mag. The P-Cygni profiles of hydrogen indicate expansion velocities of 9000 km s-1 at 61 days after discovery which is extremely high for a Type IIP SN. SN 2009kf is also remarkably bright in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and shows a slow evolution 10-20 days after optical discovery. The NUV and optical luminosity at these epochs can be modeled with a blackbody with a hot effective temperature (T ~ 16,000 K) and a large radius (R ~ 1 × 1015 cm). The bright bolometric and NUV luminosity, the light curve peak and plateau duration, the high velocities, and temperatures suggest that 2009kf is a Type IIP SN powered by a larger than normal explosion energy. Recently discovered high-z SNe (0.7 &lt; z &lt; 2.3) have been assumed to be IIn SNe, with the bright UV luminosities due to the interaction of SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. UV-bright SNe similar to SN 2009kf could also account for these high-z events, and its absolute magnitude M NUV = -21.5 ± 0.5 mag suggests such SNe could be discovered out to z ~ 2.5 in the PS1 survey.
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6.
  • Pastorello, A., et al. (författare)
  • Ultra-bright Optical Transients are Linked with Type Ic Supernovae
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 724, s. L16-L21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent searches by unbiased, wide-field surveys have uncovered a group of extremely luminous optical transients. The initial discoveries of SN 2005ap by the Texas Supernova Search and SCP-06F6 in a deep Hubble pencil beam survey were followed by the Palomar Transient Factory confirmation of host redshifts for other similar transients. The transients share the common properties of high optical luminosities (peak magnitudes ~-21 to -23), blue colors, and a lack of H or He spectral features. The physical mechanism that produces the luminosity is uncertain, with suggestions ranging from jet-driven explosion to pulsational pair instability. Here, we report the most detailed photometric and spectral coverage of an ultra-bright transient (SN 2010gx) detected in the Pan-STARRS 1 sky survey. In common with other transients in this family, early-time spectra show a blue continuum and prominent broad absorption lines of O II. However, about 25 days after discovery, the spectra developed type Ic supernova features, showing the characteristic broad Fe II and Si II absorption lines. Detailed, post-maximum follow-up may show that all SN 2005ap and SCP-06F6 type transients are linked to supernovae Ic. This poses problems in understanding the physics of the explosions: there is no indication from late-time photometry that the luminosity is powered by 56Ni, the broad light curves suggest very large ejected masses, and the slow spectral evolution is quite different from typical Ic timescales. The nature of the progenitor stars and the origin of the luminosity are intriguing and open questions.
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7.
  • Calén, H, et al. (författare)
  • Detector setup for a storage ring with an internal target
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002. ; 379:1, s. 57-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A detector setup for the cooler storage ring CELSIUS is described. The setup detects particles produced in interactions between the internal beam and a cluster-jet target. Particles emitted in the forward direction are measured by means of arrays of plastic scintillators and proportional counters. Particles, particularly photons, emitted more isotropically are measured by means of two calorimeters containing CsI(Na) crystals. The performance of the setup is given for neutral meson production in proton-proton and proton-deuteron interactions in the energy range 290-1360 MeV.
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8.
  • Nicholl, M., et al. (författare)
  • Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 502:7471, s. 346-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Super-luminous supernovae(1-4) that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae(5,6). Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of Ni-56 are synthesized; this isotope decays to Fe-56 via Co-56, powering bright light curves(7,8). Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe(9). Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova(1,10). Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae(2,11,12), which are not powered by radio-activity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized(13,14) ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 x 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.
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9.
  • Barret, B., et al. (författare)
  • Intercomparisons of trace gases profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS limb sounders
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 111:D21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the intercomparison of O(3), HNO(3), ClO, N(2)O and CO profiles measured by the two spaceborne microwave instruments MLS ( Microwave Limb Sounder) and SMR ( Submillimetre Radiometer) on board the Aura and Odin satellites, respectively. We compared version 1.5 level 2 data from MLS with level 2 data produced by the French data processor version 222 and 225 and by the Swedish data processor version 2.0 for several days in September 2004 and in March 2005. For the five gases studied, an overall good agreement is found between both instruments. Most of the observed discrepancies between SMR and MLS are consistent with results from other intercomparison studies involving MLS or SMR. O(3) profiles retrieved from the SMR 501.8 GHz band are noisier than MLS profiles but mean biases between both instruments do not exceed 10%. SMR HNO(3) profiles are biased low relative to MLS's by similar to 30% above the profile peak. In the lower stratosphere, MLS ClO profiles are biased low by up to 0.3 ppbv relative to coincident SMR profiles, except in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex in the presence of chlorine activation. N(2)O profiles from both instruments are in very good agreement with mean biases not exceeding 15%. Finally, the intercomparison between SMR and MLS CO profiles has shown a good agreement from the middle stratosphere to the middle mesosphere in spite of strong oscillations in the MLS profiles. In the upper mesosphere, MLS CO concentrations are biased high relative to SMR while negative values in the MLS retrievals are responsible for a negative bias in the tropics around 30 hPa.
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10.
  • de Vries, B. L., et al. (författare)
  • Comet-like mineralogy of olivine crystals in an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 490:7418, s. 74-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some planetary systems harbour debris disks containing planetesimals such as asteroids and comets(1). Collisions between such bodies produce small dust particles(2), the spectral features of which reveal their composition and, hence, that of their parent bodies. A measurement of the composition of olivine crystals (Mg2-2xFe2xSiO4) has been done for the protoplanetary disk HD 100546 (refs 3, 4) and for olivine crystals in the warm inner parts of planetary systems. The latter compares well with the iron-rich olivine in asteroids(5,6) (x approximate to 0.29). In the cold outskirts of the beta Pictoris system, an analogue to the young Solar System, olivine crystals were detected(7) but their composition remained undetermined, leaving unknown how the composition of the bulk of Solar System cometary olivine grains compares with that of extrasolar comets(8,9). Here we report the detection of the 69-micrometre-wavelength band of olivine crystals in the spectrum of beta Pictoris. Because the disk is optically thin, we can associate the crystals with an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt a distance of 15-45 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Sun-Earth distance), determine their magnesium-rich composition (x = 0.01 +/- 0.001) and show that they make up 3.6 +/- 1.0 per cent of the total dust mass. These values are strikingly similar to those for the dust emitted by the most primitive comets in the Solar System(8-10), even though beta Pictoris is more massive and more luminous and has a different planetary system architecture.
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