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Sökning: WFRF:(Weiderpass Elisabete) > (2000-2004)

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  • Baron, John A., et al. (författare)
  • Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and risk of hip fracture in women
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - 0003-9926 .- 1538-3679. ; 161:7, s. 983-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous studies regarding the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women have been inconsistent, suggesting different effects in different groups. The effect of alcohol intake on fracture risk is puzzling: moderate alcohol intake appears to increase bone density, and its association with hip fracture is not clear. METHODS: To assess the associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with hip fracture risk among postmenopausal women, we conducted an analysis of a population-based case-control study from Sweden. Cases were postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 81 years, who sustained a hip fracture after minor trauma between October 1, 1993, and February 28, 1995; controls were randomly selected from a population-based register during the same period. A mailed questionnaire requesting information on lifestyle habits and medical history was used 3 months after the hip fracture for cases and simultaneously for controls. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: Of those eligible, 1328 cases (82.5%) and 3312 controls (81.6%) responded. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had an increased risk of hip fracture (age-adjusted OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.41-1.95). Duration of smoking-particularly postmenopausal smoking-was more important than the amount smoked. Former smokers had a small increase in risk (age-adjusted OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.37) that decreased with the duration of cessation. The age-adjusted OR for women consuming alcohol was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for hip fracture among postmenopausal women; risk decreases after cessation. Alcohol consumption has a weak inverse association with risk.
  • Fryzek, J.P., et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics of women with cosmetic breast augmentation surgery compared with breast reduction surgery patients and women in the general population of Sweden
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Annals of Plastic Surgery. - 0148-7043 .- 1536-3708. ; 45:4, s. 349-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine whether women with cosmetic breast implants have distinct demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive characteristics that put them at increased risk for subsequent morbidity, the authors compared 1,369 such women to 2,211 women who had undergone breast reduction surgery, and to a random sample of 49,262 women from the general population of Sweden. Information was collected through self-administered questionnaires, and comparisons were made using the prevalence odds ratio. Women with cosmetic breast implants were significantly (p <0.05) more likely to be current smokers, have a lower body mass index, have had a prematurely terminated pregnancy (induced abortion or miscarriage), and have had fewer live births than either women who underwent breast reduction or women from the general population. Type of implant (silicone gel or saline) did not modify the associations. Regardless of the comparison group used, studies of the health effects of breast implants need to consider that women who undergo cosmetic breast implantation have certain distinct characteristics.
  • Glynn, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Regionala skillnader i kvinnors kroppsbelastning av persistenta organiskamiljöföroreningar
  • 2000
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Serumhalter av PCB och klorerade bekämpningsmedel studerades bland 205 äldre kvinnorfrån 12 län efter syd- och ostkusten samt runt Vänern och Vättern. Syftet var att undersöka omdet finns regionala skillnader i kroppsbelastning av PCB och klorerade bekämpningsmedelbland äldre kvinnor i Sverige. Tio PCB-föreningar (IUPAC nr 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138,153, 156, 167 och 180) och 10 föreningar härrörande från klorerade bekämpningsmedelanalyserades (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, HCB, -HCH, -HCH, -HCH,trans-nonaklor och oxyklordan). I den statistiska analysen delades de 12 länen in i fyraregioner, Malmö-, Linköpings-, Uppsala- och Umeå-regionen. Multipel regressionsanalys, därmedelhalterna justerats för kvinnornas ålder, BMI och viktminskning under de senaste tremånaderna, visade att kroppsbelastningen av PCB 153, PCB 156, PCB 180 och HCB var13%-29% högre i Malmö-regionen än i de andra regionerna. Störst skillnad erhölls för -HCH, där kvinnor från Malmö-regionen hade nästan dubbelt så höga medelhalter än kvinnorfrån Uppsala- och Umeå-regionen. I fallet oxyklordan visade de justerade medelvärdena enmotsatt trend, dvs. halterna var högst i norr. Trots att kroppsbelastningen i några fall var högrei vissa regioner var skillnaderna inte dramatiska, vilket antyder att exponeringen för PCB ochklorerade bekämpningsmedel har varit förhållandevis jämn över landet bland den allmännabefolkningen. Resultaten visade att serumhalten av vissa PCB föreningar ökade med ökadkonsumtion av fet fisk bland kvinnorna. De regionala skillnaderna i serumhalt berodde dockinte på skillnader i konsumtion av fet fisk utan beror troligen till viss del på skillnader imiljöbelastning mellan olika regioner.
  • Riman, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in Swedish women
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 94:7, s. 497-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), which is mainly used to relieve climacteric symptoms, increases a woman's risk for uterine endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Estrogens are often combined with progestins in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to reduce the risk of uterine endometrial cancer. Data on the association between HRT including progestins and EOC risk are limited. This nationwide case-control study examined EOC risk in relation to HRT regimens with sequentially added progestins (HRTsp) and continuously added progestins (HRTcp). METHODS: Between 1993 and 1995, we enrolled 655 histologically verified incident case patients with EOC and 3899 randomly selected population controls, all 50-74 years of age. Data on HRT use were collected through mailed questionnaires. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by the use of unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Risks of EOC were elevated among ever users as compared with never users of both ERT (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.00) and HRTsp (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.05); risks were elevated for serous, mucinous, and endometrioid subtypes. For all EOC types combined, the greatest risk increases were seen with hormone use exceeding 10 years. Ever use of HRTcp was not associated with increased EOC risk relative to HRTcp never use (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.43). The risk of EOC was elevated among HRTsp ever users as compared with HRTcp ever users (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.05 to 3.01). ORs for EOC after ever use of low-potency estrogens were 1.18 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.55) for oral and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.72) for vaginal applications, but no relationship was seen between EOC risk and duration of use. CONCLUSION: Ever users of ERT and HRTsp but not HRTcp may be at increased risk of EOC.
  • Wedrén, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Oestrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype and postmenopausal breast cancer risk : a case control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 6:4, s. R437-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Oestrogen receptor alpha, which mediates the effect of oestrogen in target tissues, is genetically polymorphic. Because breast cancer development is dependent on oestrogenic influence, we have investigated whether polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) are associated with breast cancer risk. METHODS: We genotyped breast cancer cases and age-matched population controls for one microsatellite marker and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1. The numbers of genotyped cases and controls for each marker were as follows: TAn, 1514 cases and 1514 controls; c.454-397C --> T, 1557 cases and 1512 controls; c.454-351A --> G, 1556 cases and 1512 controls; c.729C --> T, 1562 cases and 1513 controls; c.975C --> G, 1562 cases and 1513 controls. Using logistic regression models, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Haplotype effects were estimated in an exploratory analysis, using expectation-maximisation algorithms for case-control study data. RESULTS: There were no compelling associations between single polymorphic loci and breast cancer risk. In haplotype analyses, a common haplotype of the c.454-351A --> G or c.454-397C --> T and c.975C --> G SNPs appeared to be associated with an increased risk for ductal breast cancer: one copy of the c.454-351A --> G and c.975C --> G haplotype entailed an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.33) and two copies with an OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.15-1.77), compared with no copies, under a model of multiplicative penetrance. The association with the c.454-397C --> T and c.975C --> G haplotypes was similar. Our data indicated that these haplotypes were more influential in women with a high body mass index. Adjustment for multiple comparisons rendered the associations statistically non-significant. CONCLUSION: We found suggestions of an association between common haplotypes in ESR1 and the risk for ductal breast cancer that is stronger in heavy women.
  • Weiderpass, Elisabete, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 21:4, s. 623-627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) is an important mediator of hormonal responses such as proliferation in estrogen-sensitive tissues, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in the ER gene could be functional and associated with endometrial cancer risk. We performed a population-based case-control study in Sweden, focusing on restriction fragment length polymorphisms for XbaI and PvuII and an upstream TA repeat polymorphism. In the main analysis, 154 cases and 205 controls who never used hormone replacement therapy took part and we calculated age-adjusted and multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression. The XbaI X allele appeared to confer a reduced risk for endometrial cancer. The multivariate OR for the XX genotype was 0.52 (95% CI 0.21-1.29) compared to the xx genotype and there were suggestions of decreasing risk with increasing number of X alleles (P for trend = 0.07). The PvuII PP genotype was also associated with a non-significantly decreased risk for endometrial cancer (multivariate OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.34-1.44) compared with the pp genotype (P for trend = 0.43). The multivariate OR for two short TA (<19 repeats) alleles versus two long alleles was 1.54 (95% CI 0. 73-3.27) and there were suggestions of increasing risk with increasing number of short alleles (P for trend = 0.26). We observed the same pattern of results in an expanded group of subjects, which included women who had used hormone replacement (in total 288 cases and 392 controls). Our data suggest that variants of the ER gene may be associated with an altered risk of endometrial cancer.
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