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1.
  • Abbas, Sascha, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nutrition and Cancer. - Taylor & Francis. - 0163-5581. ; 65:2, s. 178-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
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2.
  • Braem, Marieke G. M., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 95:5, s. 1172-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund Report concluded that there was limited and inconsistent evidence for an effect of coffee and tea consumption on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Objective: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we aimed to investigate whether coffee intakes, tea intakes, or both are associated with the risk of EOC. Design: All women participating in the EPIC (n = 330,849) were included in this study. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. Furthermore, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all previous prospective studies until April 2011 by comparing the highest and lowest coffee- and tea-consumption categories as well as by using dose-response random-effects meta-regression analyses. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 1244 women developed EOC. No association was observed between the risk of EOC and coffee consumption HR: 1.05 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.46) for the top quintile compared with no intake or tea consumption HR: 1.07 (95% Cl: 0.78, 1.45) for the top quintile compared with no intake. This lack of association between coffee and tea intake and EOC risk was confirmed by the results of our meta-analysis. Conclusion: Epidemiologic studies do not provide sufficient evidence to support an association between coffee and tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1172-81.
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3.
  • Freisling, Heinz, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary acrylamide intake of adults in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition differs greatly according to geographical region
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207. ; 52:4, s. 1369-1380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In this cross-sectional analysis, 36 994 men and women, aged 35-74 years completed a single, standardized 24-hour dietary recall using EPIC-Soft. Food consumption data were matched to a harmonized AA database. Intake was computed by gender and center, and across categories of habitual alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjustment was made for participants' age, height, weight, and energy intake using linear regression models. Adjusted mean AA intake across centers ranged from 13 to 47 mu g/day in men and from 12 to 39 mu g/day in women; intakes were higher in northern European centers. In most centers, intake in women was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. There were no associations between AA intake and physical activity, BMI, or education. At least 50 % of AA intake across centers came from two food groups "bread, crisp bread, rusks" and "coffee." The third main contributing food group was "potatoes". Dietary AA intake differs greatly among European adults residing in different geographical regions. This observed heterogeneity in AA intake deserves consideration in the design and interpretation of population-based studies of dietary AA intake and health outcomes.
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4.
  • Jakobsen, Marianne U., et al. (författare)
  • Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press. - 0007-1145. ; 109:2, s. 353-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95% CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95% CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95% CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over-or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95% CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
5.
  • Knaze, Viktoria, et al. (författare)
  • Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal Of Nutrition. - Cambridge Univ Press. - 0007-1145. ; 108:6, s. 1095-1108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453.6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377.6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160.5 mg/d; women: 124.8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213.5 mg/d; women: 178.6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26.6 mg/d in men; women: 20.7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29.3 mg/d; women: 25.3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455.2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134.6 mg/d; women: 101.0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.
6.
  • Romaguera, Dora, et al. (författare)
  • Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? : Results from the EPIC study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 96:1, s. 150-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Design: The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. Results: Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% Cl: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. Conclusion: Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:150-63.
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7.
  • Romieu, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 96:2, s. 345-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype.Objective: The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Design: We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI. GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status.Results: Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HRQ5-Q1 (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HRQ5-Q1 = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER (-)/PR- BC [HRQ5-Q1 (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HRQ5-Q1 = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed.Conclusion: Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER- and ER-/PR- BC among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:345-55.
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8.
  • Vergnaud, Anne-Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 97:5, s. 1107-1120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. Objective: We investigated whether concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations is related to risk of death. Design: The current study included 378,864 participants from 9 European countries enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. At recruitment (1992-1998), dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A WCRF/AICR score, which incorporated 6 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for men [regarding body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, and alcoholic drinks (score range: 0-6)] and 7 WCRF/AICR recommendations for women [plus breastfeeding (score range: 0-7)], was constructed. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. Associations between the WCRF/AICR score and risks of total and cause-specific death were estimated by using Cox regression analysis. Results: After a median follow-up time of 12.8 y, 23,828 deaths were identified. Participants within the highest category of the WCRF/AICR score (5-6 points in men; 6-7 points in women) had a 34% lower hazard of death (95% CI: 0.59, 0.75) compared with participants within the lowest category of the WCRF/AICR score (0-2 points in men; 0-3 points in women). Significant inverse associations were observed in all countries. The WCRF/AICR score was also significantly associated with a lower hazard of dying from cancer, circulatory disease, and respiratory disease. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that following WCRF/AICR recommendations could significantly increase longevity.
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9.
  • Vergnaud, Anne-Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition - physical activity, nutrition, alcohol, cessation of smoking, eating out of home, and obesity study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 95:1, s. 184-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content.Objective: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.Design: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for.Results: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were >50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores.Conclusions: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:184-93.
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10.
  • Vikström, Anna C., et al. (författare)
  • Hemoglobin adducts as a measure of variations in exposure to acrylamide in food and comparison to questionnaire data
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology. - Elsevier. - 0278-6915. ; 50:7, s. 2531-2539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurement of haemoglobin (Hb) adducts from acrylamide (AA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) is a possibility to improve the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies of AA intake from food. This study aims to clarify the reliability of Hb-adduct measurement from individual single samples for exposure assessment of dietary AA intake. The intra-individual variations of AA- and GA-adduct levels measured in blood samples collected over 20 months from 13 non-smokers were up to 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively. The corresponding interindividual variations observed between 68 non-smokers, with large differences in AA intake, were 6-fold and 8-fold, respectively. The intra-individual variation of the GA-to-AA-adduct level ratio was up to 3-fold, compared to 11-fold between individuals (n = 68). From AA-adduct levels the average AA daily intake (n = 68) was calculated and compared to that estimated from dietary history methodology: 0.52 and 0.67 mu g/kg body weight and day, respectively. At an individual level the measures showed low association (Rs = 0.39). Conclusions: Dietary AA is the dominating source to measured AA-adduct levels and corresponding inter- and intra-individual variations in non-smokers. Measurements from single individual samples are useful for calculation of average M intake and its variation in a cohort, and for identification of individuals only from extreme intake groups. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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