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Sökning: WFRF:(Wolf Eva)

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  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
  • Ad, Niv, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Cardiac Surgery. A Consensus Statement of the international Society of Minimally Invasive Cardiothoracic Surgery (ISMICS)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Innovations. - 1556-9845. ; 5:2, s. 74-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This purpose of this consensus conference was to determine whether surgical atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation during cardiac surgery improves clinical and resource outcomes compared with cardiac surgery alone in adults undergoing cardiac surgery for valve or coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Before the consensus conference, the consensus panel reviewed the best available evidence, whereby systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized trials were considered in descending order of validity and importance. Evidence-based statements were created, and consensus processes were used to determine the ensuing recommendations. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology system was used to label the level of evidence and class of recommendation. Results: The consensus panel agreed on the following statements in patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery concomitant surgical ablation: 1. Improves the achievement of sinus rhythm at discharge and 1 year (level A); this effect is sustained up to 5 years (level B). Does not reduce the use of antiarrhythmic drugs at 12 months after surgery (level A; 36.0% vs. 45.4%), although trials were not designed to answer this question. 2. Does not increase the requirement for permanent pacemaker implantation (4.4% vs. 4.8%; level A). 3. Does not increase the risk of perioperative mortality (level A), stroke (level A), myocardial infarction (level B), cardiac tamponade (level A), reoperative bleeding (level A), esophageal injury (level B), low cardiac output (level A), intraaortic balloon (level B), congestive heart failure (level B), ejection fraction (EF; level B), pleural effusion (level A), pneumonia (level A), renal dysfunction (level B), and mediastinitis (level A). The incidence of esophageal injury remains to be low (level B). 4. Does not reduce mortality at 1 year (level A). There is a possible reduction in mortality beyond 1 year (level B), but no difference in stroke (level A), myocardial infarction (level A), and heart failure (level B). EF is increased (+4.1% more than control; level A). 5. Has been shown to improve exercise tolerance at 1 year (level A), but no impact on quality of life at 3 months and 1 year (level A); however, the methodology used and the number of trials studying these outcomes are insufficient. 6. Increases cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times (level A), with no difference in intensive care unit and hospital length of stay (level A). Overall costs were not reported. Conclusions: Given these evidence-based statements, the consensus panel stated that, in patients with persistent and permanent AF undergoing cardiac surgery, concomitant surgical ablation is recommended to increase incidence of sinus rhythm at short- and long-term follow-up (class 1, level A); to reduce the risk of stroke and thromboembolic events (class 2a, level B); to improve EF (class 2a, level A); and to exercise tolerance (class 2a, level A) and long-term survival (class 2a, level B).
  • Allemani, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer survival in the US and Europe: a CONCORD high-resolution study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. - 0020-7136. ; 132:5, s. 1170-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardized survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences. Population-based data on stage at diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up were collected for about 20,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 15-99 years during 1996-98 in 7 US states and 12 European countries. Age-standardized net survival and the excess hazard of death up to 5 years after diagnosis were estimated by jurisdiction (registry, country, European region), age and stage with flexible parametric models. Breast cancers were generally less advanced in the US than in Europe. Stage also varied less between US states than between European jurisdictions. Early, node-negative tumors were more frequent in the US (39%) than in Europe (32%), while locally advanced tumors were twice as frequent in Europe (8%), and metastatic tumors of similar frequency (5-6%). Net survival in Northern, Western and Southern Europe (81-84%) was similar to that in the US (84%), but lower in Eastern Europe (69%). For the first 3 years after diagnosis the mean excess hazard was higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere: the difference was most marked for women aged 70-99 years, and mainly confined to women with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. Differences in breast cancer survival between Europe and the US in the late 1990s were mainly explained by lower survival in Eastern Europe, where low healthcare expenditure may have constrained the quality of treatment.
  • Bjur, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Salicylidene Acylhydrazides That Affect Type III Protein Secretion in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. ; 51:8, s. 2867-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A collection of nine salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit the activity of virulence-associated type III secretion systems (T3SSs) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The compounds strongly affected Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) T3SS-mediated invasion of epithelial cells and in vitro secretion of SPI1 invasion-associated effector proteins. The use of a SPI1 effector ß-lactamase fusion protein implicated intracellular entrapment of the protein construct upon application of a salicylidene acylhydrazide, whereas the use of chromosomal transcriptional gene fusions revealed a compound-mediated transcriptional silencing of SPI1. Salicylidene acylhydrazides also affected intracellular bacterial replication in murine macrophage-like cells and blocked the transport of an epitope-tagged SPI2 effector protein. Two of the compounds significantly inhibited bacterial motility and expression of extracellular flagellin. We conclude that salicylidene acylhydrazides affect bacterial T3SS activity in S. enterica and hence could be used as lead substances when designing specific inhibitors of bacterial T3SSs in order to pharmaceutically intervene with bacterial virulence.
  • Bondemark, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Funktionsstörningar och smärta
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen;9-10. - 0039-6982. ; :9-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Debette, Stéphanie, et al. (författare)
  • Common variation in PHACTR1 is associated with susceptibility to cervical artery dissection
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year)1. Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors1–3, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described3,4. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches5. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1 1,393 CeAD cases and 1 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.82; P = 4.46 × 1 10−10), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 1 × 1 10−3; combined P = 1 1.00 × 1 10−1111). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction6–9. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.
  • Eva, Wolf, et al. (författare)
  • Lyssnande möten i tandvården
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Hälsofrämjande möten : från barnhälsovård till palliativ vård. - Studentlitteratur. - 9789144070452
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Fernebro, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of in vitro fitness defects on pneumococcal ability to colonize and to cause invasive disease.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC microbiology. - 1471-2180. ; 8, s. 65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a genetically diverse major human pathogen, yet a common colonizer of the nasopharynx. Here we analyzed the influence of defects affecting in vitro growth rate, on the ability of S. pneumoniae to colonize and to cause invasive disease in vivo. RESULTS: Of eleven different clinical isolates one serotype 14 carrier isolate showed a significantly longer generation time as compared to other isolates, and was severely attenuated in mice. To directly investigate the impact of growth rate on virulence, a panel of mutants in five non-essential housekeeping genes was constructed in the virulent TIGR4 background by insertion-deletion mutagenesis. Three of these mutants (ychF, hemK and yebC) were, to different degrees, growth defective, and showed a reduced invasiveness in an intranasal murine challenge model that correlated to their in vitro growth rate, but remained capable of colonizing the upper airways. The growth defect, as well as virulence defect of the hemK insertion-deletion mutant, was mediated by polarity effects on the downstream yrdC gene, encoding a probable chaperone in ribosome assembly. CONCLUSION: We conclude that large fitness defects are needed to completely prevent pneumococci from causing invasive disease after intranasal challenge. However, even severe growth defects still allow pneumococci to persistently colonize the upper airways.
  • Fransson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of lasers as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals: a systematic review.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Endodontic Journal;4. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0143-2885. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of various types of lasers used as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals with the outcome measures 'normal periapical condition' or 'reduction of microbial load'. PubMed, CENTRAL and ISI Web of Knowledge literature searches with specific indexing terms and a subsequent hand search were made with stated limits and criteria. Relevant publications were retrieved, followed by interpretation. The quality of each included publication was assessed as high, moderate or low. The initial search process yielded 234 publications. All abstracts of these publications were read, and the reference lists of relevant publications were hand-searched. Ten articles were read in full text and interpreted according to a data extraction form. Five were included in the systematic review and were assessed. A meta-analysis was impossible to perform because the included studies were heterogeneous with regard to study design, treatment and outcome measures. Positive effects were reported; however, no concluding evidence grade could be made because each included study was judged to have low quality, primarily due to lack of a power analysis, blinding and reproducibility. The evidence grade for whether lasers can be recommended as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals was insufficient. This does not necessarily imply that laser should not be used as an adjunct to root canal treatment but instead underscores the need for future high-quality studies.
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