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Sökning: WFRF:(Wolf Eva)

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  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
  • Ad, Niv, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Cardiac Surgery. A Consensus Statement of the international Society of Minimally Invasive Cardiothoracic Surgery (ISMICS)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Innovations. - 1556-9845. ; 5:2, s. 74-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This purpose of this consensus conference was to determine whether surgical atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation during cardiac surgery improves clinical and resource outcomes compared with cardiac surgery alone in adults undergoing cardiac surgery for valve or coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Before the consensus conference, the consensus panel reviewed the best available evidence, whereby systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized trials were considered in descending order of validity and importance. Evidence-based statements were created, and consensus processes were used to determine the ensuing recommendations. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology system was used to label the level of evidence and class of recommendation. Results: The consensus panel agreed on the following statements in patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery concomitant surgical ablation: 1. Improves the achievement of sinus rhythm at discharge and 1 year (level A); this effect is sustained up to 5 years (level B). Does not reduce the use of antiarrhythmic drugs at 12 months after surgery (level A; 36.0% vs. 45.4%), although trials were not designed to answer this question. 2. Does not increase the requirement for permanent pacemaker implantation (4.4% vs. 4.8%; level A). 3. Does not increase the risk of perioperative mortality (level A), stroke (level A), myocardial infarction (level B), cardiac tamponade (level A), reoperative bleeding (level A), esophageal injury (level B), low cardiac output (level A), intraaortic balloon (level B), congestive heart failure (level B), ejection fraction (EF; level B), pleural effusion (level A), pneumonia (level A), renal dysfunction (level B), and mediastinitis (level A). The incidence of esophageal injury remains to be low (level B). 4. Does not reduce mortality at 1 year (level A). There is a possible reduction in mortality beyond 1 year (level B), but no difference in stroke (level A), myocardial infarction (level A), and heart failure (level B). EF is increased (+4.1% more than control; level A). 5. Has been shown to improve exercise tolerance at 1 year (level A), but no impact on quality of life at 3 months and 1 year (level A); however, the methodology used and the number of trials studying these outcomes are insufficient. 6. Increases cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times (level A), with no difference in intensive care unit and hospital length of stay (level A). Overall costs were not reported. Conclusions: Given these evidence-based statements, the consensus panel stated that, in patients with persistent and permanent AF undergoing cardiac surgery, concomitant surgical ablation is recommended to increase incidence of sinus rhythm at short- and long-term follow-up (class 1, level A); to reduce the risk of stroke and thromboembolic events (class 2a, level B); to improve EF (class 2a, level A); and to exercise tolerance (class 2a, level A) and long-term survival (class 2a, level B).
  • Ahrens, Maryon, et al. (författare)
  • Atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos above 1 TeV interacting in IceCube
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998. ; 91:2, s. 022001
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was designed primarily to search for high-energy (TeV-PeV) neutLrinos produced in distant astrophysical objects. A search for. greater than or similar to 100 TeV neutrinos interacting inside the instrumented volume has recently provided evidence for an isotropic flux of such neutrinos. At lower energies, IceCube collects large numbers of neutrinos from the weak decays of mesons in cosmic-ray air showers. Here we present the results of a search for neutrino interactions inside IceCube's instrumented volume between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in 641 days of data taken from 2010-2012, lowering the energy threshold for neutrinos from the southern sky below 10 TeV for the first time, far below the threshold of the previous high-energy analysis. Astrophysical neutrinos remain the dominant component in the southern sky down to a deposited energy of 10 TeV. From these data we derive new constraints on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino spectrum, Phi(v) = 2.06(-0.3)(+0.4) x 10(-18) (E-v = 10(5) GeV)-2.46 +/- 0.12GeV-1 cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1) for 25 TeV < E-v < 1.4 PeV, as well as the strongest upper limit yet on the flux of neutrinos from charmed-meson decay in the atmosphere, 1.52 times the benchmark theoretical prediction used in previous IceCube results at 90% confidence.
  • Allemani, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer survival in the US and Europe: a CONCORD high-resolution study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. - 0020-7136. ; 132:5, s. 1170-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardized survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences. Population-based data on stage at diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up were collected for about 20,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 15-99 years during 1996-98 in 7 US states and 12 European countries. Age-standardized net survival and the excess hazard of death up to 5 years after diagnosis were estimated by jurisdiction (registry, country, European region), age and stage with flexible parametric models. Breast cancers were generally less advanced in the US than in Europe. Stage also varied less between US states than between European jurisdictions. Early, node-negative tumors were more frequent in the US (39%) than in Europe (32%), while locally advanced tumors were twice as frequent in Europe (8%), and metastatic tumors of similar frequency (5-6%). Net survival in Northern, Western and Southern Europe (81-84%) was similar to that in the US (84%), but lower in Eastern Europe (69%). For the first 3 years after diagnosis the mean excess hazard was higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere: the difference was most marked for women aged 70-99 years, and mainly confined to women with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. Differences in breast cancer survival between Europe and the US in the late 1990s were mainly explained by lower survival in Eastern Europe, where low healthcare expenditure may have constrained the quality of treatment.
  • Bondemark, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Funktionsstörningar och smärta
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen;9-10. - 0039-6982. ; :9-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Dawson, Victoria, et al. (författare)
  • Periapical status of non-root-filled teeth with resin composite, amalgam, or full crown restorations : a cross-sectional study of a Swedish adult population
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Endodontics;9. - Elsevier. - 0099-2399. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Experimental studies show that dental pulp cells respond unfavorably to contact with resin composite restorative material. Hypothetically, in a random population, the frequency of apical periodontitis should be higher for teeth restored with resin composite than with amalgam. Therefore, the aim was to compare the periapical status of non-root-filled teeth restored with resin composite, amalgam, or laboratory-fabricated crowns in an adult Swedish population. METHODS: The subjects comprised 440 individuals from a randomly selected sample of 1,000 adult residents of a Swedish county. The type, material, and quality of the restorations were recorded for all non-root-filled teeth by clinical examination and intraoral clinical photographs. Periapical status was evaluated on panoramic radiographs. The association between periapical status and type, material, and quality of the restorations was analyzed using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of apical periodontitis (AP) between teeth restored with resin composite or amalgam (1.3% and 1.1%, respectively). The frequency of AP for teeth restored with laboratory-fabricated crowns was significantly higher (6.3%). Regression analysis showed no association between AP and resin composite restorations but a significant association with laboratory-fabricated crowns. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the risk of damage to the pulp-dentin complex from exposure to resin composite material and dentin bonding agents shown in experimental studies is not reflected in the clinical setting. However, in the study sample, AP was diagnosed in a significantly higher proportion of teeth restored with laboratory-fabricated crowns.
  • Debette, Stéphanie, et al. (författare)
  • Common variation in PHACTR1 is associated with susceptibility to cervical artery dissection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 47, s. 78-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year)1. Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors1–3, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described3,4. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches5. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1 1,393 CeAD cases and 1 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.82; P = 4.46 × 1 10−10), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 1 × 1 10−3; combined P = 1 1.00 × 1 10−1111). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction6–9. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.
  • Eva, Wolf, et al. (författare)
  • Lyssnande möten i tandvården
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Hälsofrämjande möten : från barnhälsovård till palliativ vård. - Studentlitteratur. - 9789144070452
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Fernebro, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of in vitro fitness defects on pneumococcal ability to colonize and to cause invasive disease.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC microbiology. - 1471-2180. ; 8, s. 65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a genetically diverse major human pathogen, yet a common colonizer of the nasopharynx. Here we analyzed the influence of defects affecting in vitro growth rate, on the ability of S. pneumoniae to colonize and to cause invasive disease in vivo. RESULTS: Of eleven different clinical isolates one serotype 14 carrier isolate showed a significantly longer generation time as compared to other isolates, and was severely attenuated in mice. To directly investigate the impact of growth rate on virulence, a panel of mutants in five non-essential housekeeping genes was constructed in the virulent TIGR4 background by insertion-deletion mutagenesis. Three of these mutants (ychF, hemK and yebC) were, to different degrees, growth defective, and showed a reduced invasiveness in an intranasal murine challenge model that correlated to their in vitro growth rate, but remained capable of colonizing the upper airways. The growth defect, as well as virulence defect of the hemK insertion-deletion mutant, was mediated by polarity effects on the downstream yrdC gene, encoding a probable chaperone in ribosome assembly. CONCLUSION: We conclude that large fitness defects are needed to completely prevent pneumococci from causing invasive disease after intranasal challenge. However, even severe growth defects still allow pneumococci to persistently colonize the upper airways.
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