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  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Gamma-ray emission concurrent with the nova in the symbiotic binary V407 cygni
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 329:5993, s. 817-821
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Novae are thermonuclear explosions on a white dwarf surface fueled by mass accreted from a companion star. Current physical models posit that shocked expanding gas from the nova shell can produce x-ray emission, but emission at higher energies has not been widely expected. Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of variable ?-ray emission (0.1 to 10 billion electron volts) from the recently detected optical nova of the symbiotic star V407 Cygni. We propose that the material of the nova shell interacts with the dense ambient medium of the red giant primary and that particles can be accelerated effectively to produce ?0 decay ?-rays from proton-proton interactions. Emission involving inverse Compton scattering of the red giant radiation is also considered and is not ruled out.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 208:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence >= 0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 325:5942, s. 840-844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi large area telescope observations of PSR J1836+5925
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 712:2, s. 1209-1218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of the gamma-ray pulsar PSR J1836+5925, powering the formerly unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1835+5918, was one of the early accomplishments of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Sitting 25 degrees off the Galactic plane, PSR J1836+5925 is a 173 ms pulsar with a characteristic age of 1.8 million years, a spindown luminosity of 1.1 x 10(34) erg s(-1), and a large off-peak (OP) emission component, making it quite unusual among the known gamma-ray pulsar population. We present an analysis of one year of LAT data, including an updated timing solution, detailed spectral results, and a long-term light curve showing no indication of variability. No evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen and the spectral characteristics of the OP emission indicate it is likely magnetospheric. Analysis of recent XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray counterpart yields a detailed characterization of its spectrum, which, like Geminga, is consistent with that of a neutron star showing evidence for both magnetospheric and thermal emission.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 736:1, s. L11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the discovery of >= 100 MeV gamma-rays from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to similar to 128 days after the time of periastron, t(p), on 2010 December 15. No gamma-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron. Faint gamma-ray emission appeared as the pulsar approached periastron. At similar to t(p) + 30 days, the >= 100 MeV gamma-ray flux increased over a period of a few days to a peak flux 20-30 times that seen during the pre-periastron period, but with a softer spectrum. For the following month, it was seen to be variable on daily timescales, but remained at similar to(1-4) x 10(-6) cm(-2) s(-1) before starting to fade at similar to t(p) + 57 days. The total gamma-ray luminosity observed during this period is comparable to the spin-down power of the pulsar. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the source showed no corresponding dramatic changes in radio and X-ray flux between the pre-periastron and post-periastron flares. We discuss possible explanations for the observed gamma-ray-only flaring of the source.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 753:1, s. 83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) provided spatial, spectral, and temporal properties for a large number of gamma-ray sources using a uniform analysis method. After correlating with the most-complete catalogs of source types known to emit gamma rays, 630 of these sources are unassociated (i.e., have no obvious counterparts at other wavelengths). Here, we employ two statistical analyses of the primary gamma-ray characteristics for these unassociated sources in an effort to correlate their gamma-ray properties with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and pulsar populations in 1FGL. Based on the correlation results, we classify 221 AGN-like and 134 pulsar-like sources in the 1FGL unassociated sources. The results of these source classifications appear to match the expected source distributions, especially at high Galactic latitudes. While useful for planning future multiwavelength follow-up observations, these analyses use limited inputs, and their predictions should not be considered equivalent to probable source classes for these sources. We discuss multiwavelength results and catalog cross-correlations to date, and provide new source associations for 229 Fermi-LAT sources that had no association listed in the 1FGL catalog. By validating the source classifications against these new associations, we find that the new association matches the predicted source class in similar to 80% of the sources.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi establishes classical novae as a distinct class of gamma-ray sources
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 345:6196, s. 554-558
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A classical nova results from runaway thermonuclear explosions on the surface of a white dwarf that accretes matter from a low-mass main-sequence stellar companion. In 2012 and 2013, three novae were detected in gamma rays and stood in contrast to the first gamma-ray-detected nova V407 Cygni 2010, which belongs to a rare class of symbiotic binary systems. Despite likely differences in the compositions and masses of their white dwarf progenitors, the three classical novae are similarly characterized as soft-spectrum transient gamma-ray sources detected over 2- to 3-week durations. The gamma-ray detections point to unexpected high-energy particle acceleration processes linked to the mass ejection from thermonuclear explosions in an unanticipated class of Galactic gamma-ray sources.
  • Dahl-Jensen, D., et al. (författare)
  • Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 493:7433, s. 489-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis of water stable isotopes, NEEM surface temperatures after the onset of the Eemian (126,000 years ago) peaked at 8 +/- 4 degrees Celsius above the mean of the past millennium, followed by a gradual cooling that was probably driven by the decreasing summer insolation. Between 128,000 and 122,000 years ago, the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 +/- 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 +/- 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during the exceptional heat of July 2012. With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future.
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