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Sökning: WFRF:(Zaring Olof 1962 ) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Bourelos, Evangelos, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Akademiska patent: om svenska forskares innovationsförmåga
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Sveriges entreprenöriella ekosystem : företag, akademi, politik / redaktörer: Maureen McKelvey, Olof Zaring. - Stockholm : Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research Institute. - 978-91-977728-4-6 ; s. 112-131
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Bourelos, Evangelos, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Universities and their Involvement in Industrial Innovation as seen through Academic Patents
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The 15th Globelics Conference, Athens, Greece, 11-13 October, 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incomplete data can lead to faulty conclusions within social science. This matters in a larger perspective because data and subsequent conclusions form the basis for decision-making in public policy. Academic patents represent reasonably reliable and good data, in the sense that one can systematically examine patents across many variables such as countries, time periods and technological fields. As a measure of either invention or innovation, patents of course have both advantages and disadvantages, as acknowledged by many leading authors (Henderson et al., 1998, Jaffe and Lerner, 2001, Pries and Guild, 2011, Zucker et al., 2002). A recent systematic literature review has found that the topic of academic patents in the broader understanding of university-industry interactions has exploded in recent years, with high levels of citations (Bourelos, 2013). In the case of Sweden, the data about academic patents needs to be carefully collected and checked, which is why new databases must be constructed. Sweden has an institutional framework called the ‘teachers’ exception’ or ‘professor’s privilege’, which means that the individual – and not the university – holds intellectual property rights (IPR). Working with colleagues abroad, our research group has developed novel databases through a series of European projects during the last decade . The two most reliable databases that we developed for Sweden are from 2005 and 2011, where construction of the first one was initially part of an MSc thesis while the completion of the latter one is part of a PhD thesis (Bourelos, 2013, Cropelli, 2006). This paper is presenting a map of academic patenting in Sweden. These descriptive statistics allow us to assess the academic performance in Sweden and will highlight the fields and universities where academics patent. We are therefore able to identify possible areas of competitive advantage for Sweden when comparing the figures with academic patenting in other countries. At the micro level, this paper will contribute in completing the picture of the academic inventor in Sweden. The statistics of this chapter can be interesting for academics who study academic entrepreneurship, policy makers who are interested in motivating third mission activities, as well as firms who are seeking collaboration with academic inventors. The empirical overviews and results can be seen as revolutionizing what we think we know – because the new databases help us challenging many stereotypes and myths about Sweden. This chapter provides two types of data in the overview: namely, data that compares Sweden to Italy, France and the USA based upon data from 2005 as well as novel data from the recent completion of the database for 2011. This chapter presents an overview of academic patents in Sweden, by defining academic patents as patents where individual scientists and engineers working at universities and engineering faculties are involved as inventors.
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3.
  • Dang, Rani, et al. (författare)
  • Creating, Maintaining and Dismantling a Hybrid Space for Sustainability Research: Exploring the practices of academic engagement in a university-industry centre
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: DRUID 2019 Conference Proceedings. - Copenhagen, Denmark : DRUID Society.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drawing on a four-year qualitative field study, we explore the practise of academic engagement as institutionalized in a university-industry centre. We define this as a hybrid space, designed to allow interactions between commercial and academic logics. Our analysis identifies two phases: The first phase is creating the centre, through developing a formal organizational structure, which relies on pre-existing knowledge networks. The second phase is maintaining and dismantling the centre, which is constituted through micro-level activities. Difficulties arise with hybridizing the logics. We interpret that placing too much focus on ‘becoming an entrepreneurial university’ through a formal organizational structure can take too much time away from the on-going activities. The ‘commercial logic’ is interpreted differently by each industrial partner, which causes difficulties in deciding about research, due to the uncertain nature of science per se. We describe a new type of ‘societal engagement logic’, in this case related to sustainability.
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4.
  • Dang, Rani J., 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative engineering projects and sustainability: Analysing open innovation practices for societal impact in the context of advanced engineering in university industry centres
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 20th Uddevalla Symposium 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden, 15-17 June 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article examines how open innovation practices (OIP) in the specific form of university-industry interactions can deliver societal impact. This article combines propositions from two streams of literature. One is that achieving societal goals through open innovation requires new advanced research and technology. Another is that when analysing university-industry interactions, there is a large difference between ‘commercialization’ and ‘academic engagement with industry’. We analyse a university-industry centre, with the dual goals of business innovation and sustainability. This article develops and uses a conceptual framework, in order to analyse and identify the main OIPs used, based upon microprocesses, in the context of collaborative engineering projects between universities and industry. Open innovation practices have been widely studied in the context of business innovation. Chesbrough & Bogers (2014, p. 17) define open innovation as “a distributed innovation process based on purposively managed knowledge flows across organizational boundaries”. Much of this literature focuses upon open innovation practices (OIP), within the context of business. Although a line of research has started to emerge, in order to understand the linkages between OIP and societal impact, including research describing government initiatives and proposing ways to measure outcomes (Chesbrough et al. 2014; Bornmann, 2013; EC 2015), two aspects have been fairly neglected: namely, universities’ role as well as the use of OIP for societal impact. Therefore, this article links the literature on OIP for societal impact with literature on university-industry interactions. Our theoretical framework is designed to analyse and identify the main OIPs used. The case study chosen is of a university-industry centre involving several engineering and science departments, large and small companies in order to gain more granular understanding of the OIP that potentially could have a societal impact. Combining multiple goals, with multiple participating organizations can lead to dilemmas, which in this case are created between business and social goals or logics. Our focus is upon how OIP are used and developed in relation to tensions that arise as different partners work towards goals, and how they find organizational solutions to handle the issues arising during distributed innovation processes. Hence, our study contributes to the literature in two ways. First, it provides a framework for better understanding how OIP work in the academic context, specifically advanced engineering involving university and firms. The study extends the framework on academic engagement with a sustainability dimension and shows its implications. Second, it examines the on-going practice that occurs, when a university-industry centre simultaneously has goals of business innovation and sustainability. The paper is structured as follows. The next section (2) grounds our work in Open Innovation Practices for societal impact and University-Industry interactions literatures, and introduces the theoretical framework on which we base our study. Next, we present the empirical context (3), then in the following section we outline our research design (4). Finally, we discuss how our findings contribute to the study of the emergence and identification of OIPs and how these OIPs work in the U-I collaboration context.
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5.
  • Gifford, Ethan, et al. (författare)
  • The role of founder knowledge in the survival and growth of knowledge intensive new ventures
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Baldy Conference on Universities and Development. 7-8 April 2018. University at Buffalo..
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper examines the impacts of three types of founder and founder team knowledge on the survival and growth of knowledge-intensive new ventures: entrepreneurial, academic and same-industry knowledge. We utilize unique survey data of young, small European firms across sectors, which have been matched with data on subsequent firm performance. In terms of likelihood of survival, our results indicate the importance of previous entrepreneurial knowledge and same-industry knowledge. In terms of growth, our results using quantile regression indicate that both entrepreneurial knowledge and academic knowledge from previous work experience are positively associated with high growth rates, whereas results for same-industry knowledge are mixed.
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6.
  • Gifford, Ethan, et al. (författare)
  • The role of founder knowledge in the survival and growth of knowledge intensive new ventures
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: 17th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference: "Innovation, Catch-up, and Sustainable Development.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper examines the impacts of three types of founder and founder team knowledge on the survival and growth of knowledge-intensive new ventures: entrepreneurial, same-industry, and academic work knowledge. We utilize unique survey data of young, small European firms across sectors, which have been matched with data on subsequent firm performance. In terms of likelihood of survival, our results indicate the importance of previous entrepreneurial work knowledge and same-industry work knowledge. In terms of growth, our results using quantile regression indicate that both entrepreneurial work knowledge and academic work knowledge from previous work experience are positively associated with high growth rates, whereas results for same-industry work knowledge are mixed.
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7.
  • Gifford, Ethan, et al. (författare)
  • The role of founder knowledge in the survival and growth of knowledge intensive new ventures
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The 30th Annual European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy conference 2018: Evolutionary foundations at a crossroad; Assessments, outcomes and implications for policy makers.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper examines the impacts of three types of founder and founder team knowledge on the survival and growth of knowledge-intensive new ventures: entrepreneurial, same-industry, and academic work knowledge. We utilize unique survey data of young, small European firms across sectors, which have been matched with data on subsequent firm performance. In terms of likelihood of survival, our results indicate the importance of previous entrepreneurial work knowledge and same-industry work knowledge. In terms of growth, our results using quantile regression indicate that both entrepreneurial work knowledge and academic work knowledge from previous work experience are positively associated with high growth rates, whereas results for same-industry work knowledge are mixed.
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8.
  • Hermanson, I., et al. (författare)
  • The evolution and embeddedness of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial firms in creative industries: contrasting experienced and non-experienced entrepreneurs in the Swedish fashion industry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Planning Studies. - 0965-4313. ; 26:12, s. 2387-2406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article focuses on the micro-level processes whereby knowledge-intensive entrepreneurs become embedded in networks to access resources, and in doing so help transform a region. Our analysis contributes to theoretical debates about how the entrepreneurs achieve this aim in order to develop their knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial ventures in creative industries. Our conceptualization specifies how entrepreneurs can use embeddedness in networks in order to access specific types of resources, during the pre-entry phase, the establishment phase, and the post-entry phase. The textiles and fashion industry is an interesting setting to explore these topics because of the rapid industrial transformation from mass production of textiles to large e-commerce firms. Our results suggest that pre-history of the individual entrepreneur has long-term effects upon access to unique resources within the industry, enabling this group to more quickly build their entrepreneurial ventures. Our qualitative case study contributes to theoretical discussions of how micro-processes of KIE entrepreneurship can renew regions and traditional industries, because our analysis shows the enduring impact of past industrial, regional and family ties.
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9.
  • Hermansson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Bringing together engineering and equestrian sports: Exploring how a university initiates academic engagement with society
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The DRUID 2018 Conference, Copenhagen, June 11-13 2018.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Within the extensive literature on university-industry interactions, one recent and influential stream of literature defines academic engagement with industry, and differentiates it from commercialization. This paper examines academic engagement with society and industry in a broad sense, by focusing on an area where interaction did not previously exist and where stakeholders do not have a tradition of interacting with universities. Bringing together engineering and equestrian sports in a European university constitutes the case study. The empirical material used includes 15 interview transcripts, field notes from 9 observations and document studies of 426 newspaper, articles and press from the period 2011-2017. We focus on how academics create the engagement with society, and the stakeholders, e.g. the process of developing the actual knowledge-related collaboration. Contrary to expectations, the main activities are related to education, but organized by individual researchers, and the university embeds what was initially an informal organization into a more formal organization, because the initiative attracted much public attention and potentially a target group for recruitment (e.g. female students interested in the overlap of engineering and equestrian sports).
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10.
  • Hermansson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring what roles the university can play in organizing interactions between researchers-users-business in order to use engineering knowledge to improve sports
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Third Nordic STS (Science, Technology, Society) Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 31 May - 2 June 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Emerging new technology require an innovation network and organizational structures as well as integration of research, users and public policy which are supposed to give access to valuable resources (Chesbrough, 2006; Perkmann et al., 2013). Universities have to be seen as strategic actors, as an organization, and their role is changing in society and it may be useful to consider the university as an organization, trying to position themselves to obtain resources and set goals (Deiaco, Hughes, & McKelvey, 2012). Previous studies have emphasized more research of how and why academics engaged with the society in terms of providing three types of knowledge-intensive services: education, research and societal interaction (McKelvey & Zaring, 2017). However, literature on university-industry collaboration has paid little attention to societal interaction and how a university can create organizational structure to reformulate their engagement with the society and industry (Alexander, Miller, & Fielding, 2015). The working research question for this paper is "Exploring what role the university can play in organizing interactions between researcher - users - business in order to use engineering knowledge to improve sports? This paper is based on a case study of Chalmers Sport and Technology, a platform where researchers engage with universities, industry, public policy, students and society to undertake advanced sports-related research. The data consist of 7 interviews transcripts, field notes from 7 observations and document studies of 70 newspaper, articles and press from the period 2011-2017. The study shows that the university adopts unconventional strategies in their attempt to establish structures for academic engagement with the society. Findings indicate that this platform act as a facilitator for innovation and gives insights into how universities can engage users, collaborative reserach and governing bodies within equestrian sport in order to recrute students, create new reserach areas, commercialize knowledge and goodwill.
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