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Sökning: WFRF:(Zheng Jie) > (2015-2019)

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  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
  • Liang, Jie, et al. (författare)
  • A Crystalline Mesoporous Germanate with 48-Ring Channels for CO2 Separation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Angewandte Chemie International Edition. - 1433-7851. ; 54:25, s. 7290-7294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the challenges in materials science has been to prepare crystalline inorganic compounds with mesopores. Although several design strategies have been developed to address the challenge, expansion of pore sizes in inorganic materials is more difficult compared to that for metal-organic frameworks. Herein, we designed a novel mesoporous germanate PKU-17 with 3D 48 x 16 x 16-ring channels by introducing two large building units (Ge-10 and Ge-7 clusters) into the same framework. The key for this design strategy is the selection of 2-propanolamine (MIPA), which serves as the terminal species to promote the crystallization of Ge-7 clusters. Moreover, it is responsible for the coexistence of Ge-10 and Ge-7 clusters. To our knowledge, the discovery of PKU-17 sets a new record in pore sizes among germanates. It is also the first germanate that exhibits a good selectivity toward CO2 over N-2 and CH4.
  • Wen, Wanqing, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new loci for waist-hip ratio and waist circumference.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sixty genetic loci associated with abdominal obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR), have been previously identified, primarily from studies conducted in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations of abdominal obesity with approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 53,052 (for WC) and 48,312 (for WHR) individuals of Asian descent, and replicated 33 selected SNPs among 3,762 to 17,110 additional individuals. We identified four novel loci near the EFEMP1, ADAMTSL3 , CNPY2, and GNAS genes that were associated with WC after adjustment for body mass index (BMI); two loci near the NID2 and HLA-DRB5 genes associated with WHR after adjustment for BMI, and three loci near the CEP120, TSC22D2, and SLC22A2 genes associated with WC without adjustment for BMI. Functional enrichment analyses revealed enrichment of corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, GNRH signaling, and/or CDK5 signaling pathways for those newly-identified loci. Our study provides additional insight on genetic contribution to abdominal obesity.
  • Albrecht, Stefano V., et al. (författare)
  • Reports on the 2015 AAAI Workshop Series
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The AI Magazine. - 0738-4602. ; 36:2, s. 90-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AAAI's 2015 Workshop Program was held Sunday and Monday, January 25-26, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Austin Hotel in Austin, Texas, USA. The AAAI-15 workshop program included 16 workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. Most workshops were held on a single day. The titles of the workshops included Algorithm Configuration; Artificial Intelligence and Ethics; Artificial Intelligence Applied to Assistive Technologies and Smart Environments; Artificial Intelligence for Cities; Artificial Intelligence for Transportation: Advice, Inter-activity, and Actor Modeling; Beyond the Turing Test; Computational Sustainability; Computer Poker and Imperfect Information; Incentive and Trust in E-Communities; Knowledge, Skill, and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots; Learning for General Competency in Video Games; Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination; Planning, Search, and Optimization; Scholarly Big Data: AI Perspectives, Challenges, and Ideas; Trajectory-Based Behaviour Analytics; and World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence.
  • Chen, Bolin, et al. (författare)
  • LTE-WLAN Aggregation with Bursty Data Traffic and Randomized Flow Splitting
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC). - IEEE. - 978-1-5386-8088-9 - 978-1-5386-8089-6
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the effect of bursty traffic in an LTE and Wi-Fi aggregation (LWA)-enabled network, where part of the LTE traffic is offloaded to Wi-Fi access points (APs) to boost the performance of LTE networks. A Wi-Fi AP maintains two queues containing data intended for the LWA-mode user and the native Wi-Fi user, and it is allowed to serve them simultaneously by using superposition coding (SC). With respect to the existing works on LWA, the novelty of our study consists of a random access protocol allowing the Wi-Fi AP to serve the native Wi-Fi user with probabilities that depend on the queue size of the LWA-mode data. We analyze the throughput of the native Wi-Fi network, accounting for different transmitting probabilities of the queues, the traffic flow splitting between LTE and Wi-Fi, and the operating mode of the LWA user with both LTE and Wi-Fi interfaces. Our results provide fundamental insights in the throughput behavior of such aggregated systems, which are essential for further investigation in larger topologies.
  • Chen, Bolin, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling and Analysis of MPTCP Proxy-based LTE-WLAN Path Aggregation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Proceedings Singapore 4 – 8 December 2017. - IEEE Communications Society. - 9781509050192 - 9781509050208 ; s. 1-7
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Path Aggregation (LWPA) based on Multi- path Transmission Control Protocol (MPTCP) has been under standardization procedure as a promising and cost-efficient solution to boost Downlink (DL) data rate and handle the rapidly increasing data traffic. This paper aims at providing tractable analysis for the DL performance evaluation of large-scale LWPA networks with the help of tools from stochastic geometry. We consider a simple yet practical model to determine under which conditions a native WLAN Access Point (AP) will work under LWPA mode to help increasing the received data rate. Using stochastic spatial models for the distribution of WLAN APs and LTE Base Stations (BSs), we analyze the density of active LWPA- mode WiFi APs in the considered network model, which further leads to closed-form expressions on the DL data rate and area spectral efficiency (ASE) improvement. Our numerical results illustrate the impact of different network parameters on the performance of LWPA networks, which can be useful for further performance optimization. 
  • Chen, Bolin, et al. (författare)
  • Throughput and Delay Analysis of LWA With Bursty Traffic and Randomized Flow Splitting
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. ; 7, s. 24667-24678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the effect of bursty traffic in a long term evolution (LTE) and Wi-Fi aggregation (LWA)-enabled network. The LTE base station routes packets of the same IP flow through the LIE and Wi-Fi links independently. We motivate the use of superposition coding at the LWA-mode Wi-Fi access point (AP) so that it can serve LWA users and Wi-Fi users simultaneously. A random access protocol is applied in such system, which allows the native-mode AP to access the channel with probabilities that depend on the queue size of the LWA-mode AP to avoid impeding the performance of the LWA-enabled network. We analyze the throughput of the native Wi-Fi network and the delay experienced by the LWA users, accounting for the native-mode AP access probability, the traffic flow splitting between LTE and Wi-Fi, and the operating mode of the LWA user with both LIE and Wi-Fi interfaces. Our results show some fundamental tradeoffs in the throughput and delay behavior of LWA-enabled networks, which provide meaningful insight into the operation of such aggregated systems.
  • Doak, Bradley C, et al. (författare)
  • How Beyond Rule of 5 Drugs and Clinical Candidates Bind to Their Targets.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. - 0022-2623 .- 1520-4804. ; 59:6, s. 2312-2327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To improve discovery of drugs for difficult targets, the opportunities of chemical space beyond the rule of 5 (bRo5) were examined by retrospective analysis of a comprehensive set of structures for complexes between drugs and clinical candidates and their targets. The analysis illustrates the potential of compounds far beyond rule of 5 space to modulate novel and difficult target classes that have large, flat, and groove-shaped binding sites. However, ligand efficiencies are significantly reduced for flat- and groove-shape binding sites, suggesting that adjustments of how to use such metrics are required. Ligands bRo5 appear to benefit from an appropriate balance between rigidity and flexibility to bind with sufficient affinity to their targets, with macrocycles and nonmacrocycles being found to have similar flexibility. However, macrocycles were more disk- and spherelike, which may contribute to their superior binding to flat sites, while rigidification of nonmacrocycles lead to rodlike ligands that bind well to groove-shaped binding sites. These insights should contribute to altering perceptions of what targets are considered "druggable" and provide support for drug design in beyond rule of 5 space.
  • Fanidi, Anouar, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Folate, Vitamin B6, and Methionine in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874. ; 110:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Circulating concentrations of B vitamins and factors related to one-carbon metabolism have been found to be strongly inversely associated with lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The extent to which these associations are present in other study populations is unknown.Methods: Within 20 prospective cohorts from the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, a nested case-control study was designed including 5364 incident lung cancer case patients and 5364 control subjects who were individually matched to case patients by age, sex, cohort, and smoking status. Centralized biochemical analyses were performed to measure circulating concentrations of vitamin B6, folate, and methionine, as well as cotinine as an indicator of recent tobacco exposure. The association between these biomarkers and lung cancer risk was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models.Results: Participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 and folate had a modestly decreased risk of lung cancer risk overall, the odds ratios when comparing the top and bottom fourths (OR 4vs1 ) being 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00) and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.99), respectively. We found stronger associations among men (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.93) and ever smokers (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). We further noted that the association of folate was restricted to Europe/Australia and Asia, whereas no clear association was observed for the United States. Circulating concentrations of methionine were not associated with lung cancer risk overall or in important subgroups.Conclusions: Although confounding by tobacco exposure or reverse causation cannot be ruled out, these study results are compatible with a small decrease in lung cancer risk in ever smokers who avoid low concentrations of circulating folate and vitamin B6.
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