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1.
2.
  • A Sampler of International Media and Communication Statistics 2010
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The contemporary media culture raises more complex issues than ever before. Digital technologies, and advances of media such as the Internet, have driven the development. In this changing media landscape, traditional media, such as television, radio and newspapers, remain powerful, but their preconditions are affected. ‘A Sampler of International Media and Communication Statistics 2010’ is a collection and compilation of statistics from a large number of sources. The aim of the publication is to provide a comprehensive overview of international media and communication statistics, primarily concerning television and the Internet, but also, to a lesser extent, newspapers and radio. The emphasis of this publication is on the Internet and television. These two sections are divided into two parts, respectively ‘The world’ for comparisons between different parts of the world, and in ‘Regions’ for comparisons within different parts of the globe.
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3.
  • Abrahamssom, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Onlay bone grafting of the mandible after periosteal expansion with an osmotic tissue expander: an experimental study in rabbits
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research;12. - 1600-0501. ; :12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the space-maintaining capacity of a titanium mesh or a bioresorbable mesh after periosteal expansion and to assess bone formation under a titanium mesh or a bioresorbable mesh on the lateral border of the mandible by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Material and methods: In 13 rabbits, a self-inflatable soft tissue expander was placed intraorally, bilaterally under the mandibular periosteum via an extra oral approach. After 2 weeks, the expanders were removed and a particulated onlay bone graft was placed and covered by a titanium mesh or a bioresorbable mesh. After 3 months, the animals were sacrificed and specimens were collected for histology. Results: The osmotic soft tissue expander created a subperiosteal pocket and a ridge of new bone had formed at the edges of the expanded periosteum in all sites. After the healing period of 3 months, soft tissue dehiscence was recorded in two of the sites with bioresorbable meshes. The mean bone fill was 65% under the titanium mesh and 85% under the bioresorbable mesh (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the titanium mesh and the bioresorbable mesh regarding the height of the meshes, mesh area and mineralized bone area. Scanning electron microscopy shows that new bone is growing in direct contact with the resorbable mesh and the titanium mesh. Conclusion: This study confirms that an osmotic soft tissue expander creates a surplus of periosteum and soft tissue and that new bone can be generated under a titanium mesh or bioresorbable mesh.
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4.
  • Abrahamsson, Peter (författare)
  • Intra-oral soft tissue expansion and volume stability of onlay bone grafts
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Implantat är idag en väl etablerad behandlingsform. I många fall finns dock inte tillräckligt med käkben för att på ett optimalt sätt kunna rekonstruera patientens bett såväl ur funktionell som estetisk synpunkt. I dessa fall används olika tekniker för att tillföra käkben. Problemet med dessa tekniker är att benvolymen minskar under inläkningen speciellt om ben transplanteras till laterala och vertikala positioner. Vidare kan det vara svårt att få tillräckligt med mjukvävnad för att uppnå estetiskt tillfredställande resultat, speciellt i överkäksfronten. Avhandlingens övergripande mål är att introducera och utvärdera en ny teknik för mjukvävnadsexpansion för att optimera förutsättningarna för en efterföljande bentransplantation av tillräcklig volym för kommande installation av implantat. I de experimentella studierna har kanin använts som försöksdjur. I delarbete (I) placerades en osmotisk mjukvävnadsexpander bilateralt under benhinnan (periostet) på åtta djur via en extraoral entré. Efter två veckor hade periostet expanderat och en subperiostal ficka bildats. Djuren avlivades och vävnad togs för histologisk undersökning. Denna visade inga inflammatoriska reaktioner eller resorptioner av benet. Periostet hade expanderats och nytt ben hade bildats i periferin av expandern genom att periostet lyfts långsamt och stimulerat till bennybildning. På samma sätt som beskrivits ovan placerades expandern i delarbetena (II) och (III) på 13 respektive 11 kaniner. Efter 14 dagars expansion sövdes kaninerna på nytt, expandern avlägsnades och partikulerat käkben placerades på utsidan av mandibeln bilateralt (delarbete II). På ena sidan täcktes det med ett titannät och på andra sidan med ett resorberbart nät. Efter tre månaders inläkning hade benbildning skett under båda näten. Volymen under det resorberbara nätet var större (p<0.05) men inga skillnad noterades i mängden mineraliserat ben. Två resorberbara nät perforerade den orala slemhinnan. Detta berodde troligen på att det resorberbara nätet var svårare att konturera och anpass mot underkäken. I delarbete (III) placerades partikulerat ben och Bio Oss, separerat av ett kollagenmembran, unilateralt på mandibeln under ett titannät som i sin tur var täckt av ett kollagenmembran. Volymen nybildat ben i anslutning till autologt ben respektive Bio Oss registrerades efter 3 månaders inläkning. Inga skillnader i benvolym förelåg. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) visade i båda studierna att ben växte i direkt kontakt med såväl autologt ben som bensubstitut. Till den kliniska studien (delarbete IV) rekryterades 20 patienter konsekutivt. De fördelades slumpmässigt i två grupper. I experimentgruppen opererades 10 patienter med en osmotisk mjukvävnadsexpander. Efter två veckor avlägsnades denna och benuppbyggnad gjordes med partikulerat ben täckt av ett titannät och ett kollagenmembran. Efter sex månaders läkning installerades implantat. I referensgruppen gjordes benuppbyggnad med benblock följt av en implantatoperation efter sex månader. Ett optiskt mätinstrument användes för att registrera förändringar i mjukvävnaden efter såväl subperiostal expansion som benuppbyggnad. Dessa förändringar lagrades i en PC där värdena kunde analyseras och jämföras. Resultaten från den kliniska studien stämde väl överens med de experimentella. Expandern expanderade periost och täckande mjukvävnad. Det föreligger dock en risk att expandern perforerar mjukvävnaden. Den optiska mätningen visade en volymsförbättring efter mjukvävnadsexpansionen. Den expanderade vävnaden kunde användas till att täcka ett bentransplantat som skyddades av ett titannät samt ett kollagen membran. Trots tidigare vävnads expansion exponerades titannätet genom slemhinnan i två fall. Fixturinstallation kunde utföras som planerat både i den experimentella gruppen samt referens gruppen. Det optiska mätinstrumentet (PRIMOS® optical 3D) var ett lättanvänt och repeterbart mätinstrument som levererade vävnadsförändringar med stor exakthet.
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5.
  • Ackermann, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Design of a bioelectrocatalytic electrode interface for oxygen reduction in biofuel cells based on a specifically adapted Os-complex containing redox polymer with entrapped Trametes hirsuta laccase
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Electrochemistry Communications;5. - Elsevier B.V.. - 1388-2481. ; :5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The design of the coordination shell of an Os-complex and its integration within an electrodeposition polymer enables fast electron transfer between an electrode and a polymer entrapped high-potential laccase from the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta. The redox potential of the Os3+/2+-centre tethered to the polymer backbone (+720 mV vs. NHE) is perfectly matching the potential of the enzyme (+780 mV vs. NHE at pH 6.5). The laccase and the Os-complex modified anodic electrodeposition polymer were simultaneously precipitated on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by means of a pH-shift to 2.5. The modified electrode was investigated with respect to biocatalytic oxygen reduction to water. The proposed modified electrode has potential applications as biofuel cell cathode.
6.
  • Adelmann, Kent (författare)
  • Lyssnandets århundrade? Att lyssna på den talande boken
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Educare;1. - Lärarutbildningen, Malmö högskola. - 1653-1868. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about the importance of listening in modern sound technology and the importance of tradition in reception analysis of literary conversations. The object of inquiry is The poetics of the talking book, a dissertation about how different groups of listeners understand the reception of audio books in literary conversations. The problem explored is: What is the significance of listening in this dissertation? This text analysis has two points of departure. The first point of departure concerns the language used in the dissertation. Results from the study show that the language used is mainly influenced by literary reception and reader response theory, and is therefore misleading to the reader when it comes to listening reception of the talking book. The second point of departure concerns the analytical conceptions used in the dissertation. Results from the study show that the conceptions used comes solely from literary reception and reader response theory, which means that the authors twelve references from listening reception and listening theory are never used in the analysis. The conclusion is that the dissertation seems to be a contradictory representation of a modern expression of audio books, listening research and sound technology and, at the same time, a traditional expression of the western tradition, dominating discourse and literature reception.
7.
  • Al-Harthy, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • ACIDIC SALINE-INDUCED PAIN AS A MODEL FOR EXPERIMENTAL MASSETER MYALGIA IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Abstracts of the 13th World Congress of Pain. - IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain and Omnipress). - 978-0-931092-87-9
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim was to assess the influence of culture on pain expression, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), and pain tolerance levels (PTLs) in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) pain cases and pain-free matched controls in three cultures. Methods: This was a case-controlled study on 150 (50 Saudi Arabians, 50 Italians and 50 Swedes) cases of chronic TMD pain compared with 148 age- and gender-matched pain-free controls (50 Saudi Arabians, 50 Italians, and 48 Swedes). The cases and controls completed pain questionnaires and underwent clinical examinations per the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) for classification status. PPT and PTL were measured on all participants with a pressure algometer (Somedic®) at a pressure increase rate of 30 kPa/s using a 1.0-cm diameter probe. Three body sites on the right side were investigated: the temporalis, masseter, and thenar muscles. The average of three measurements made at 1-min intervals was calculated for PPT and PTL. A one-way ANOVA compared mean values. Results: Mean characteristic pain severity among TMD cases was 54±(25) for the Saudi Arabian; 56±(20) for the Swedish; and 62.5±(21) for the Italian cases. Between-culture differences were non-significant. PPTs at the temporalis and masseter muscles in the TMD cases were highest in the Saudi Arabians compared to the Swedes and Italians (P<0.001). No between-culture differences among the TMD cases were found in the thenar muscle. Among controls, higher PPTs in the masseter muscle were found in Swedes and Saudi Arabians compared with Italians (P<0.001), while Swedes reported the highest PPT for the thenar compared with Saudi Arabians and Italians (P<0.001). No between-culture differences were observed at the temporalis muscle. PTLs at the masseter muscle in the TMD cases were similar for the Saudi Arabians and Swedes but significantly lower for the Italians (P<0.001). Thenar PTLs were significantly higher in the Swedes compared to the Italians (P<0.001). No significant between-culture differences among the TMD cases were found in the temporalis muscle. Among controls, similar PTLs were observed in the Swedes and Saudi Arabians for the temporalis and masseter muscles, while the Italians had significantly lower PTLs than these groups at the masseter muscles (P<0.01) and lower than the Swedes at the temporalis (P<0.001). A significantly higher thenar PTL was found among Swedes compared to Saudi Arabians and Italians (P<0.001). Cross-modality PPT based on clinical pain for TMD cases revealed significant differences between Saudi Arabians and both Swedes and Italians in the temporalis and masseter muscles (P<0.001). No significant differences were found in the thenar muscle. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that Saudis and Swedes are more similar in PPT and PTL than Italians are to either group, indicating that cultural factors may influence pain perception.
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8.
  • Al-Harthy, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Temporomandibular disorder pain in adult Saudi Arabians referred for specialised dental treatment
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal;3. - 0347-9994. ; :3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) pain in Saudi Arabians,aged 20-40, who were referred to the Specialist Dental Centre in Makkah. The material included 325 patients (135 males,190 females) who answered a history questionnaire. Patients reportingTMD pain in the last month were offered a clinical examination. History questionnaires and clinical examinations were done according to the Arabic version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Fifty-eight patients (18%) reported TMD pain; 46 were clinically examined. Mean age of clinically examined TMD pain patients was 30 +/- 7 years with a male-female ratio of 1:6 (P < 0.001). All TMD pain patients had a diagnosis of myofascial pain, and 65% had diagnoses of arthralgia or osteoarthritis. Headaches or migraines in the last 6 months and headaches in the last month were reported in high frequencies in the TMD pain group, 93% and 71% respectively, with differences (P < 0.001) between the TMD pain and non-TMD pain groups. Graded Chronic Pain Scale assessments classified 45% of the TMD pain patients in grade 1, 53% in grade II, 2% in grade III, and 0% in grade IV. Severe depression scores were found in 38% of the TMD pain patients and severe somatisation scores in 60% with differences (P < 0.001) between the TMD pain and non-TMD pain groups. In conclusion, the study found a frequency of TMD pain in this Saudi Arabian cohort of 18%. The TMD pain group presented high scores of depression and somatisation but low disability grades on the Graded Chronic Pain Scale.
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9.
  • Albrecht, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • In Vivo Investigation of Thiomer-Polyvinylpyrrolidon Nanoparticles Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences;4. - Wiley Inter Science. - 0022-3549. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study focused on the investigation of the permeation enhancing effects of a stomach targeted, nanoparticulate drug delivery system. The polyacrylic acid–cysteine/polyvinylpyrrolidon nanoparticles were loaded with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium( III)dihydrogen salt (Gd-DTPA). Average particle size was determined to be 130nm and the optimum for stability was found to be below a pH of 4.5. In vitro permeation studies were performed on rat gastric mucosa and revealed an eightfold increase in Gd- DTPA uptake when incorporated in the nanoparticles compared to evaluation in the presence of unformulated polyacrylic acid–cysteine. In vivo investigations with rats were performed via the noninvasive MRI method in order to track the nanoparticles way through the gastrointestinal tract. When Gd-DTPA was administered orally as nanoparticulate suspension, an increased MRI signal in the urinary bladder was detected after 34 min, providing evidence for systemic uptake and renal elimination of the contrast agent. As control experiments with Gd-DTPA only or in combination with unformulated polyacrylic acid–cysteine revealed no MRI signal increase at all, the significant permeation enhancing effect could be identified based on the nanoparticulate formulation.
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10.
  • Ali, Muayad Khalid, et al. (författare)
  • Implantatbehandling ved Avdeling for oral kirurgi og oral medisin, Det odontologiske fakultet, Universitetet i Oslo 2008-2010. En klinisk studie med litteraturgjennomgang
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Den Norske tannlegeforenings tidende;14. - Den norske tannlegeforening. - 0029-2303. ; :14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The installation of dental implants is considered a suitable tooth replacement for edentulous patients and patients missing one or more teeth as a result of caries, periodontitis, trauma and/or agenesis. Today, implantation of dental implants is considered a safe form of treatment with good prognosis and low morbidity. In this study, we have looked at implant survival outcome in patients who received implants at the Department for Oral Surgery and Oral medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo during the years 2008 and 2009. The survey population consisted of 126 patients which in total had received 290 implants. Two of these implants in two patients failed. One implant failed after one year and the other after one and a half year. Both of these patients were smokers. This provides an implant survival rate above 99% at implant level and above 98% at patient level. The results appear to be in line with other and more extensive studies on the field. Smoking and a history of periodontitis are among the factors that have a significant effect on implant survival.
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