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1.
  • Aagerup, Ulf, 1969- (författare)
  • The Impact of User Weight on Brands and Business Practices in Mass Market Fashion
  • 2010
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Overweight people claim to be mistreated by the fashion industry. If they were, it would be in line with branding theory supporting the idea of rejecting fat consumers to improve user imagery for fashion brands. However, fashion companies do not confess to such practices.To shed some light on the subject, I have conducted two studies.The first attempts to illustrate what effect, if any, user imagery has on fashion brands. It is an experiment designed to show how the weight of users affects consumers’ perceptions of mass market fashion brands. The findings show that consumers’ impressions of mass market fashion brands are significantly affected by the weight of its users. The effect of male user imagery is ambiguous. For women’s fashion on the other hand, slender users are to be preferred.In the second study I examine what effects these effects have on assortments. I compare the sizes of mass market clothes to the body sizes of the population. No evidence of discrimination of overweight or obese consumers was found -quite the contrary.The reasons for these unexpected findings may be explained by the requirements a brand must fulfil to make management of the customer base for user imagery purposes viable. The brand must be sensitive to user imagery; a requirement that mass market fashion fulfils. However, it must also be feasible for a company to exclude customers, and while garment sizes can be restricted to achieve this, the high volume sales strategy of mass market fashion apparently cannot.
2.
  • Bergman, Lars (författare)
  • Using Multicoloured Halftone Screens for Offset Print Quality Monitoring
  • 2005
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the newspaper printing industry, offset is the dominating printing method and the use of multicolour printing has increased rapidly in newspapers during the last decade. The offset printing process relies on the assumption that an uniform film of ink of right thickness is transferred onto the printing areas. The quality of reproduction of colour images in offset printing is dependent on a number of parameters in a chain of steps and in the end it is the amount and the distribution of ink deposited on the substrate that create the sensation and thus the perceived colours. We identify three control points in the offset printing process and present methods for assessing the printing process quality in two of these points:• Methods for determining if the printing plates carry the correct image• Methods for determining the amount of ink deposited onto the newsprintA new concept of colour impression is introduced as a measure of the amount of ink deposited on the newsprint. Two factors contribute to values of the colour impression, the halftone dot-size and ink density. Colour impression values are determined on gray-bars using a CCD-camera based system. Colour impression values can also be determined in an area containing an arbitrary combination of cyan magenta and yellow inks. The correct amount of ink is known either from a reference print or from prepress information. Thus, the deviation of the amount of ink can be determined that can be used as control value by a press operator or as input to a control system.How a closed loop controller can be designed based on the colour impression values is also shown.It is demonstrated that the methods developed can be used for off-line print quality monitoring and ink feed control, or preferably in an online system in a newspaper printing press.
3.
  • Deraz, Hossam, 1971- (författare)
  • Assessments of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites
  • 2016
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Advertisements (ads) in social networking sites (SNSAs) have been considered by many researchers as a crucial area of research. However, the scope of the existing studies on consumers’ assessments of SNSAs has been very limited. Most of the existing studies on assessing SNSAs have focused on Ducoffe’s (1996) model with its three variables, and they have ignored other related variables like the credibility value and interactivity value of the advertisement, which are more logically related to SNSAs than the traditional ads. Moreover, most of these studies have been skewed towards younger users and have ignored the social networking site (SNS) users from other age categories. Finally, previous studies about the assessment of SNSAs have depended on data collected from users of popular SNSs and ignored active users from the brand communities (fans of brands on SNSs). In this thesis, the present author has emphasized these three points as the major gaps in the literature about assessing SNSAs. Moreover, to deepen our understanding of how SNS users assess SNSAs this study presents the research findings of three published papers with three different purposes and with different levels of analysis.The first article aimed to extend Ducoffe’s (1996) model – which was used in the previous literature in assessing SNSAs – by considering the ads’ credibility and interactivity values in addition to Ducoffe’s (1996) three variables of information value, entertainment value, and irritation value. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the modified model, and based on the regression analysis of testing the five predictors, the model without the irritation value had the best coefficient of determination (R2). Moreover, coefficient analysis to test the given hypothesis and to determine the coefficients of the predictors was used. According to this survey study, the four primary variables that predicted the consumers’ assessment of the SNSAs were the information value, entertainment value, credibility value, and interactivity value. As perceived by the SNS users, the interactivity value was the strongest among the four predictors.Based on the unexpected result ofthe irritation value of the first paper, the second paper focused on testing the extended model of the assessments of SNSAs as perceived by a different research population, in this case, brand communities’ consumers (BCCs). Based on the regression analysis of testing the five predictors, the model with the five predictors had the best coefficient of determination (R2). The coefficient analysis was used to test the given hypothesis, to determine the coefficients of the five predictors, and to form a construct equation for assessing the SNSAs. Based on this survey study, the four variables with significant positive effects on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs were informativeness, entertainment value, credibility value, and interactivity value, while the fifth dimension (irritation value) had a significant negative coefficient on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. Moreover, that study provided a deeper understanding of how the BCCs assess SNSAs, and it contributed to identifying the main characteristics ofthe BCCs on an SNS.The third paper focused on exploring the effect of national culture on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. The cultural features of the respondents in that study gave additional evidence about how a nation’s cultural characteristics can influence the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. This study helped to identify how SNS users from Egypt, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom assess SNSAs. In this study, one-way analysis of variance with post hoc tests was used to compare the assessments of the three nations. Based on the empirical findings of this survey study, the three groups had significant difference F-ratios for their perception of four of the five variables for assessing SNSAs. Their perceptions of the entertainment value did not significantly differ between the three groups while the interactivity value had the strongest F-ratio.The overall purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of how SNS users are assessing SNSAs in different settings by considering SNS users, BCCs, and others from various nations. All of the studies presented here have focused on variables for assessing the ads that have been used by other researchers in different research contexts.
4.
  • Elm, Annika, 1958- (författare)
  • Interaktion och naturvetenskap i en förskola och en förskoleklass
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med det här forskningsarbetet är att öka förståelsen av hur mönster i interaktionsprocesser påverkar barn och lärare i samtidiga skeenden. Studien syftar även till att öka insikten om hur naturvetenskapligt innehåll väljs ut och gestaltas i samspel mellan såväl barn som barn och lärare i en förskola och förskoleklass. De övergripande forskningsfrågorna är: Vilka interaktionsmönster dominerar när naturvetenskapligt innehåll behandlas? Vilka handlingar påverkar händelseförloppet? Hur väljs det naturvetenskapliga innehållet ut? Hur gestaltas det naturvetenskapliga innehållet i de specifika situationer som studeras? Därutöver syftar arbetet till att genomföra en metodstudie i avsikt att diskutera metodologiska val och analysprocessen. Teoretiska utgångspunkter tar avstamp ur konstruktionistisk teori med förankring i sociologisk interaktionsforskning. Undersökningen genomfördes i en förskola och en förskoleklass. På en förskoleavdelning medverkade en lärare och sex barn i åldern två till fyra år. I förskoleklassen medverkade två lärare och fjorton barn i åldern fem till sex år. De olika situationerna har dokumenterats med hjälp av videokamera och därefter analyserats i ett videoanalysprogram. Begreppen språkbruk och naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter har använts som raster för att strukturera och systematisera materialet. Resultatet visar att naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter som utgörs av observation och undersökning samt frågor som behandlar djur och natur dominerar i de specifika sammanhang som studerats. Interaktionsmönstret visar på konstellationer av barn som återkommande bildar team i olika situationer. Lärarna och vissa team avbarn väljer och styr därmed hur de innehållsliga aspekterna gestaltas i de naturvetenskapliga aktiviteterna.
5.
  • Gebrewahid, Essayas, 1984- (författare)
  • Compiling Concurrent Programs for Manycores
  • 2015
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The arrival of manycore systems enforces new approaches for developing applications in order to exploit the available hardware resources. Developing applications for manycores requires programmers to partition the application into subtasks, consider the dependence between the subtasks, understand the underlying hardware and select an appropriate programming model. This is complex, time-consuming and prone to error.In this thesis, we identify and implement abstraction layers in compilation tools to decrease the burden of the programmer, increase programming productivity and program portability for manycores and to analyze their impact on performance and efficiency. We present compilation frameworks for two concurrent programming languages, occam-pi and CAL Actor Language, and demonstrate the applicability of the approach with application case-studies targeting these different manycore architectures: STHorm, Epiphany and Ambric.For occam-pi, we have extended the Tock compiler and added a backend for STHorm. We evaluate the approach using a fault tolerance model for a four stage 1D-DCT algorithm implemented by using occam-pi’s constructs for dynamic reconfiguration, and the FAST corner detection algorithm which demonstrates the suitability of occam-pi and the compilation framework for data-intensive applications. We also present a new CAL compilation framework which has a front end, two intermediate representations and three backends: for a uniprocessor, Epiphany, and Ambric. We show the feasibility of our approach by compiling a CAL implementation of the 2D-IDCT for the three backends. We also present an evaluation and optimization of code generation for Epiphany by comparing the code generated from CAL with a hand-written C code implementation of 2D-IDCT.
6.
  • Hedenberg, Klas, 1968- (författare)
  • Obstacle Detection for Driverless Trucks in Industrial Environments
  • 2014
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • With an increased demand on productivity and safety in industry, new issues in terms of automated material handling arise. This results in industries not having a homogenous fleet of trucks and driven and driverless trucks are mixed in a dynamic environment. Driven trucks are more flexible than driverless trucks, but are also involved in more accidents. A transition from driven to driverless trucks can increase safety, but also productivity in terms of fewer accidents and more accurate delivery. Hence, reliable and standardized solutions that avoid accidents are important to achieve high productivity and safety. There are two different safety standards for driverless trucks for Europe (EN1525) and U.S. (B56.5–2012) and they have developed differently. In terms of obstacles, they both consider contact with humans. However, a machinery-shaped object has recently been added to the U.S. standard (B56.5–2012). The U.S. standard also considers different materials for different sensors and non-contact sensors. For obstacle detection, the historical contact-sensitive mechanical bumpers as well as the traditional laser scanner used today both have limitations – they do not detect hanging objects. In this work we have identified several thin objects that are of interest in an industrial environment. A test apparatus with a thin structure is introduced for a more uniform way to evaluate sensors. To detect thin obstacles, we used a standard setup of a stereo system and developed this further to a trinocular system (a stereo system with three cameras). We also propose a method to evaluate 3D sensors based on the information from a 2D range sensor. The 3D model is created by measuring the position of a reflector with known position to an object with a known size. The trinocular system, a 3D TOF camera and a Kinect sensor are evaluated with this method. The results showed that the method can be used to evaluate sensors. It also showed that 3D sensor systems have potential to be used on driverless trucks to detect obstacles, initially as a complement to existing safety classed sensors. To improve safety and productivity, there is a need for harmonization of the European and the U.S. safety standards. Furthermore, parallel development of sensor systems and standards is needed to make use of state-of-the-art technology for sensors.
7.
  • Hertz, Erik, 1956- (författare)
  • Parabolic Synthesis
  • 2011
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Many consumer products, such as within the computer areas, computer graphics, digital signal processing, communication systems, robotics, navigation, astrophysics, fluid physics, etc. are searching for high computational performance as a consequence of increasingly more advanced algorithms in these applications. Until recently the down scaling of the hardware technology has been able to fulfill these higher demands from the more advanced algorithms with higher clock rates on the chips. This that the development of hardware technology performance has stagnated has moved the interest more over to implementation of algorithms in hardware. Especially within wireless communication the desire for higher transmission rates has increased the interest for algorithm implementation methodologies. The scope of this thesis is mainly on the developed methodology of parabolic synthesis. The parabolic synthesis methodology is a methodology for implementing approximations of unary functions in hardware. The methodology is described with the criteria's that have to be fulfilled to perform an approximation on a unary function. The hardware architecture of the methodology is described and to this a special hardware that performs the squaring operation. The outcome of the presented research is a novel methodology for implementing approximations of unary functions such as trigonometric functions, logarithmic functions, as well as square root and division functions etc. The architecture of the processing part automatically gives a high degree of parallelism. The methodology is founded on operations that are simple to implement in hardware such as addition, shifts, multiplication, contributes to that the implementation in hardware is simple to perform. The hardware architecture is characterized by a high degree of parallelism that gives a short critical path and fast computation. The structure of the methodology will also assure an area efficient hardware implementation.
8.
  • Hinic, Hansi (författare)
  • Psykologiska, sociala och motivationsfaktorer inom ungdomsfotbollen
  • 2004
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Vilka faktorer som motiverar ungdomar att idrotta samt hur självkänsla, upplevdkompetens och faktorn ”ha skoj” är relaterade till olika motivationsfaktorer har undersöktsi denna studie. Vidare undersöktes ungdomars upplevelse av samt föräldrarsuppfattning om hur föräldrainvolveringen sker. Dessutom studerades hur föräldrainvolveringär relaterad till motivationsfaktorer, upplevd kompetens, faktorn ”ha skoj”samt individens självkänsla hos flickor och pojkar samt om det finns skillnader mellankönen vad gäller dessa aspekter. Totalt deltog 425 fotbollsspelande flickor och pojkar iåldern 12-18 år. De besvarade ett enkätbatteri angående motivation, självkänsla,upplevd kompetens, faktorn ”ha skoj” samt föräldrainvolvering. Därutöver deltog 797föräldrar som besvarade frågor om föräldrainvolvering. Resultaten visade attungdomar främst motiverades av faktorerna ”ha roligt”, ”hälsa” samt ”laganda”.Flickor motiverades mer av faktorn ”laganda” och pojkar mer av faktorn ”utvecklafärdigheterna”. Dessutom var självkänsla positivt relaterad till inre motivationsfaktorer.Ungdomarnas upplevelse av föräldrainvolvering stämde överlag överens medvad föräldrarna rapporterade. Vidare var självkänsla positivt relaterad till upplevtberöm och förståelse samt negativt till upplevd press från föräldrarna. Även faktorernaupplevd kompetens och ”ha skoj” var positivt relaterade till självkänsla. Ingaskillnader erhölls vad gäller fysiskt aktiva föräldrar jämfört med icke fysiskt aktivaföräldrar på rapportrad föräldrainvolvering eller ungdomars upplevelse av föräldrainvolvering.Flickors bassjälvkänsla var endast relaterad till faderns involvering medanpojkars var relaterad till både moderns och faderns involvering. Upplevd kompetensoch faktorn ”ha skoj” var positivt relaterade till moderns respektive faderns beröm ochförståelse hos pojkar men inte hos flickor. En slutsats av denna studie är att idrotten iändå högre utsträckning än i dag bör betona aspekter såsom ”ha skoj”, ”laganda”, samt”utveckla färdigheterna” i sin verksamhet. Föräldrar bör inta en positiv attityd till sinabarns idrottande, vilket inbegriper såväl beröm som förståelse. Tillsammans, medföräldrarna, kan idrottsrörelsen skapa en god miljö för ungdomar att idrotta i ochdärmed bidra till att ungdomarna grundlägger en livslång vana av regelbunden fysiskaktivitet.
9.
  • Hoang, Le-Nam, 1984- (författare)
  • Relaying for Timely and Reliable Message Dissemination in Wireless Distributed Control Systems
  • 2015
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Distributed control applications enabled by wireless networks are becoming more and more frequent. The advantages of wireless access are many, as control systems become mobile, autonomous and connected. Examples include platooning and automated factories. However, distributed control systems have stringent requirement on both reliability and timeliness, the latter in terms of deadlines. If the deadline is missed, the packet is considered useless, similarly to a lost or erroneous packet in a system without deadlines. In addition, wireless channels are, by nature, more exposed to noise and interference than their wired counterparts. Consequently, it implies a considerable challenge to fulfill the deadline requirements with sufficient reliability for proper functionality of distributed control applications. However, by taking advantage of cooperative communications, increased reliability can be achieved with little or no additional delay.Reducing the delay until a message is successfully received is a two-fold problem: providing channel access with a predictable maximum delay and maximizing the reliability of each transmission, once granted by the medium access method. To this end, this thesis proposes a framework that provides a bounded channel access delay and handles the co-existence of both time-triggered and event-driven messages encountered in distributed control applications. In addition, the thesis proposes and evaluates an efficient message dissemination technique based on relaying that maximizes the reliability given a certain deadline, or alternatively determines the delay required to achieve a certain reliability threshold for both unicast and broadcast scenarios. Numerical results, which are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations, show significant improvements with the proposed relaying scheme as compared to a conventional scheme without cooperation, providing more reliable message delivery given a fixed number of available time-slots. It also becomes clear in which situations relaying is preferable and in which situations pure retransmissions are preferable, as the relay selection algorithm will always pick the best option. The relay selection algorithm has a reasonable complexity and can be used by both routing algorithms and relaying scenarios in any time-critical application as long as it is used together with a framework that enables predictable channel access. In addition, it can be implemented on top of commercially available transceivers.
10.
  • Johannesson, Karin, 1982- (författare)
  • Analysis of phosphorus retention variations in constructed wetlands receiving variable loads from arable land
  • 2011
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Seven wetlands, constructed on agricultural land in the south of Sweden, were investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention. The overall aim was to increase the understanding of P retention and find possible explanations for the variations in retention that have been observed in previous studies. This was done by i) investigating P retention in wetlands receiving various water and P loads, ii) investigating the effect of variations in water flow on P transport, iii) comparing how well retention estimates based on water quality data agreed with measurements of the amount of P accumulated in the sediment.Results showed that P retention was positive in all wetlands, but it was variable (1–58 kg ha-1 yr-1) and months with negative retention were observed in nearly all wetlands. Such  monthly negative retention coincided with i) high flow periods, when particulate P was either flushed straight through the wetlands or resuspended from the bottoms, and ii) warm low flow periods, in which case dissolved P was probably released from wetland sediments due to anoxic conditions.The results from the two methods for estimating P retention differed. Based on water quality data, the total P load during four years was 65 kg ha-1 and the mean P retention 2.8 kg ha-1 yr-1, or 17% of the total P load. In contrast, the amount of P accumulated in the inlet zone alone amounted to 78% of the P load, and the P content in the upper sediment of the whole wetland area exceeded the P load with a factor four. This discrepancy showed the need to add studies of sediment accumulation to inflow-outflow estimates for an improved understanding of wetland P retention.
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