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1.
  • Abaravicius, Juozas (författare)
  • Load Management in Residential Buildings: Considering Techno-Economical and Environmental Aspects
  • 2004
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management differs depending on the perspective of the actors involved: from customer, utility, or producer to state policymaker. The problem of load demand and load management in residential sector is in this thesis approached from different perspectives, i.e. technical, economic, and environmental. The study does not go deep into detailed analyses of each perspective, but rather aims to establish and analyze the links between them. This trans-disciplinary approach is the key methodological moment used in the research work performed by the research group for load management in buildings at the Lund Institute of Technology. The key objective of this study is to analyze load demand variation and load management possibilities in residential sector, particularly detached and semi-detached houses, to experimentally test and analyze the conditions and potential of direct load management from customer and utility viewpoint. Techno-economic and environmental aspects are investigated. The study was performed in collaboration with one electric utility in Southern Sweden. Ten electric-heated houses were equipped with extra meters, enabling hourly load measurements for heating, hot water and total electricity use. Household heating and hot water systems were controlled by the utility using an existing remote reading and monitoring system. The residents noticed some of the control periods, although they didn’t express any larger discomfort. The experiments proved that direct load management might be a possible solution for the utility to solve their peak demand problems. Another solution, considered by the utility and analyzed in this study is a construction of diesel peak power plant. This alternative has negative environmental consequences compared to load management. The analysis of environmental aspects was extended to national level. To include an environmental perspective is a novel approach, since traditionally, load management evaluation is limited the economic and technical viewpoints. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO2 emissions reduction. The results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, since hydropower is used as the demand following production source in Sweden. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand.
2.
  • Abbasi, Maisam (författare)
  • Themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains
  • 2012
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sustainable development is one of the greatest global challenges facing human beings in the 21st century. In order to tackle sustainability related problems, several global, European, and national targets for 2050 have been set. The transition of supply chains activities towards sustainability targets calls for designing new strategies and continuously identifying and tackling the challenges that can hinder the operationalization of such strategies. The purpose of this research was to explore and classify themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains activities in general, and freight transport and urban distribution in particular. Three research questions were defined followed by defining the scientific assumptions and research strategies. Three research studies were then designed and carried out to find trustworthy and authentic answers to the corresponding research questions. However, research design, data collection, and data analysis were mixed and overlapping as they were not completely sequentially carried out. Data were collected by triangulation of different research methods, namely, literature review, content analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the data was guided by principles of content analysis, discourse analysis, analytic induction, and grounded theory. Synthesis of the analyzed data resulted in the emergence of categories of themes and challenges, the development of hypotheses, and further discussion. In total, five categories of themes were identified for making supply chains environmentally sustainable, fifteen for making freight transport sustainable, and eight for making urban freight distribution sustainable. Five categories of challenges were identified for making supply chains environmentally sustainable, five for making freight transport sustainable, and seven for making urban freight distribution sustainable. All the themes and challenges were then synthesized to determine the patterns of their association. Five major themes in developing sustainable supply chains emerged, namely, increasing sustainability awareness, closing the loop of supply chains, making supply chains energy-efficient, making supply chains environmentally responsible, and managerial issues. Five major challenges in developing sustainable supply chains emerged, namely, change of behavior, costs, implementation, corporate governance, and antagonistic effects and paradoxical conflicts. As the nature of supply chains and the challenges identified in developing them sustainably is complex, a complexity theory perspective was considered beneficial for dealing with them. Such a perspective can enable us to: take a more holistic view of available sustainability-oriented strategies and activities; analyze the antagonistic effects of strategies and activities on each other; recognize conflicts of a paradoxical character that exist in supply chains; analyze the changes influencing and influenced by the strategies and activities; appreciate enough diversity and freedom among the sub-systems rather than too much simplification of them; design and redesign the transition paths for different types of supply chains. A complexity theory perspective can also be beneficial when governing a transformative transition of supply chains towards sustainability targets. Lessons are suggested in the discussion chapter that may help policy and decision makers in designing the future strategies and in tackling the challenges. The themes identified can be beneficial for increasing the absorptive capacity of industries, practitioners, and policy makers while they design innovative strategies for transitions towards sustainability targets. The identified challenges can also be beneficial for reducing the inertia and uncertainties against operationalization of sustainable development in practice.
3.
  • Abdelmassih Waller, Peter (författare)
  • Den utsträckta TV:n - Ett exempel ur praktiken
  • 2007
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med den här licentiatuppsatsen är dels att beskriva äldre människors intresse av och möjligheter till att använda TV:n till annat än traditionellt TV-tittande, dels att beskriva olineariteterna i den designprocess i vilken detta arbete ägde rum. Konceptet ”Den utsträckta TV:n” utvecklades och provades (av äldre människor, deras anhöriga och personal) i en ny vårdboendemiljö samtidigt som inflyttning, nyanställning och slutjustering av lokaler och teknik pågick. Totalt omfattades 30 äldre personer, med en ålder mellan 60 och 100 år, i den process som pågick mellan juni 2006 och februari 2007. En avgörande bakgrundsfaktor var att initialmotståndet mot tekniken i sig är lågt när det handlar om en så flitigt använd produkt som TV-apparaten. Detta visade sig också vara sant när - som i detta fallet - det handlade om en TV med platt skärm (gäller för alla rum och är helt oberoende av detta projektet). Funktionerna i den utsträckta TV:n var dels boendegemensamma, dels personliga. De boendegemensamma funktionerna bestod av en intern TV-kanal och två media centers med goda möjligheter att visa gemensamma internproduktioner, annat av allmänt intresse och material som anhöriga tog med sig. Den personliga funktionen handlade om kommunikation utifrån det egna fotoalbumet i den egna TV:n. Den utsträckta TV:ns funktion och användning utvecklades i och genom en väv av visioner, kompetenser, relationer, ansvarsområden och logistiska förutsättningar. Resultaten handlar både om gränssnitt och om de handlande människorna själva (de äldre, deras anhöriga, personalen, IT-konsulter, teknikleverantörer, jag själv och många fler), våra verktyg och handlingsutrymmen. Det som tagit den garanterat längsta tiden är det olineära i designprocessen. Den har varit komplex och ingalunda följt de initiala planerna. Detta är visserligen mer regel än undantag i situerade människonära designprocesser men det dokumenteras alltför sällan. Jag hoppas att lärdomarna från användningen av den utsträckta TV:n skall medverka till nytänkande kring äldre människors TV-tittande.
4.
  • Abrahamsson, Marcus (författare)
  • Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk Analysis - Characterisation and Methods of Treatment
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The fundamental problems related to uncertainty in quantitative risk analyses, used in decision making in safety-related issues (for instance, in land use planning and licensing procedures for hazardous establishments and activities) are presented and discussed, together with the different types of uncertainty that are introduced in the various stages of an analysis. A survey of methods for the practical treatment of uncertainty, with emphasis on the kind of information that is needed for the different methods, and the kind of results they produce, is also presented. Furthermore, a thorough discussion of the arguments for and against each of the methods is given, and of different levels of treatment based on the problem under consideration. Recommendations for future research and standardisation efforts are proposed.
5.
6.
  • Alce, Günter (författare)
  • Prototyping Methods for Augmented Reality Interaction
  • 2015
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The age of wearable technology devices is upon us. These devices are available in many different form factors including head-mounted displays (HMDs), smartwatches and wristbands. They enable access to information at a glance. They are intended to always be ‘‘on’’, to always be acting and to always be sensing the surrounding environment in order to offer a better interface to the real world. A technology suitable for these kinds of user interfaces (UIs) is augmented reality (AR) due to its ability to merge real and virtual objects. It can be difficult and time consuming to prototype and evaluate this new design space due to components that are undeveloped or not sufficiently advanced. To overcome this dilemma and focus on the design and evaluation of new user interfaces instead, it is essential to be able to quickly simulate undeveloped components of a system to enable the collection of valuable feedback from potential users. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to develop and evaluate two methods that can be used for prototyping AR interaction. The thesis is based on the four attached papers. Paper 1 presents a Wizard of Oz tool called WozARd and the set of tools it offers. The WozARd device allows the test leader to control the visual, tactile and auditive output that is presented to the test participant. WozARd is also suitable for use in an AR environment where images are overlaid on the smartphone’s camera view or on glasses. The main features that were identified as necessary for simulating AR functionality were: presentation of media such as images, video and sound; navigation and location based triggering; automatically taking photos; capability to log test results; notifications; and the integration of the Sony SmartWatch for interaction possibilities. The study described in Paper 2 is an initial investigation of the capability of the WozARd method to simulate a believable illusion of a real working AR city tour. A user study was carried out by collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data from 21 participants who performed the AR city tour using the WozARd with a HMD and smartwatch. The data analysis focused on seven categories that can have a potential impact on how the WozARd method is perceived by participants: precision, relevance, responsiveness, technical stability, visual fidelity, general user experience, and human operator performance. Overall, the results seem to indicate that the participants perceived the simulated AR city tour as a relatively realistic experience despite a certain degree of technical instability and human operator mistakes. Paper 3 presents a proposed method, called IVAR (Immersive Virtual AR), for prototyping wearable AR interaction in a virtual environment (VE). IVAR was developed in an iterative design process that resulted in a testable setup in terms of hardware and software. Additionally, a basic pilot experiment was conducted to explore what it means to collect quantitative and qualitative data with the proposed prototyping method. The main contribution is that IVAR shows potential to become a useful wearable AR prototyping method, but that several challenges remain before meaningful data can be produced in controlled experiments. In particular, tracking technology needs to improve, both with regards to intrusiveness and precision. The goal of Paper 4 was to apply IVAR to evaluate the four interaction concepts from Paper 3: two for device discovery and two for device interaction implemented in a virtual environment. The four interaction concepts were compared in a controlled experiment. Overall, the results indicate that the proposed interaction concepts were found natural and easy to use. Overall, the research presented in this thesis found the two prototyping methods, the WozARd and the IVAR method, to be useful for prototyping AR interaction but several challenges remain before meaningful data can be produced in controlled experiments. WozARd is flexible in terms of being easy to add new UI, and is sufficiently stable for prototyping an ecosystem of wearable technology devices in outdoor environments, but it relies on a well-trained wizard operator. IVAR is suitable for simulations of more complex scenarios, e.g. since registration and tracking easily can be simulated. However, it has the disadvantage of being static, since users need to sit down and their movements are somewhat limited because they are connected to a computer with cables.
7.
8.
  • Alfranseder, Emanuel (författare)
  • Essays in Financial Economics
  • 2012
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Chapter 1 develops a framework to investigate the impact of the financial crisis starting in 2007 and employs an extended GARCH model to test for spillover and contagion effects originating from the financial sector. We find that the financial crisis affects financially distressed firms more heavily than non-distressed firms. Financial constraints do not play an equally crucial role during the crisis. Overall, the analysis shows that the financial sector affects the returns of non-financial firms during the crisis. We find little evidence that the turbulence in the financial sector expressed in terms of volatility fully encroaches upon non-financial firms. Chapter 2 introduces a model aiming to explain the equity premium puzzle. Consumers exhibit both pessimism and doubt. Consumers are pessimistic if their beliefs about the dividend are a translation of the objective dividend by an independent and identically distributed normal random variable with negative mean. Consumers exhibit doubt if their beliefs are a translation of the objective dividend by an independent and identically distributed normal random variable with mean zero. A cross-sectional empirical study using the SHARE database explores the differences between various European countries in terms of pessimism and doubt and tests the theoretical model empirically.
9.
10.
  • Anderberg, Anders (författare)
  • Moisture properties of self-levelling flooring compounds
  • 2004
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Self-levelling flooring compounds (SLC) are used to level substrates (mainly concrete slabs) before applying final floor coverings. Although it is an extensively used product, only limited research has so far been published concerning their moisture properties. This report focuses on moisture properties of SLC and describes methods for determining them. Moisture properties of materials are important for the calculation of drying times and moisture loads and for prediction of ion transport and degradation rates. In this report, measurements of moisture diffusion and moisture sorption are presented. Measurements were made with three commercial SLC. Later in the project, results from this report will be used when the function of SLC in flooring constructions will be investigated. These investigations will mainly concern transport of moisture and OH-ions and degradation of other materials in contact with SLC, such as components in flooring adhesives and PVC-floorings.
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