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  • A good life for all : Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better
  • 2017
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • For a better world now and in the futureFor a world that sustains itself for genereations to come, the University of Gävle is an ambitious and development-oriented organization with a focus on sustainability now and in the future. Under the leadership of Dr. Maj-Britt Johansson, the University is creating a sustainable community. This book commemorates her efforts in hounour of her 60th birthday.The ten essays here show the wide variety of sustainability activities under her leadership, not limited to ecological issues, includning science, social work, building design and contruction, and World Hertiage sites, along with a variety of other cutting-edge topics.
  • Aasa, Ulrika (författare)
  • Ambulance Work Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel.A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a national questionnaire survey on work-related factors, and musculoskeletal and other health complaints. Physical demands was associated with activity limitation due to neck-shoulder and low-back complaints among the female personnel. Among the male personnel, physical demands was associated with low-back complaints and activity limitation due to low-back complaints. Psychological demands was significantly associated with neck-shoulder complaints, sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Worry about work conditions was associated with musculoskeletal disorders and sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms.A local sample of 26 ambulance personnel was followed during a 24-hour work shift and for the next two work-free days. Subjective stress- and energy levels, and cortisol levels were measured at regular intervals, and heart rate was registered continuously by electrocardiogram (ECG). Autonomic reactivity to standardized tests before (pre-work) and at the end of the work shift (post-work) was also investigated. For the whole group, baseline values of heart rate were higher pre-work than post-work, but autonomic reactivity did not differ. Increased reactivity to the mental test, modest deviation in heart rate variability (HRV) pattern during the late night hours at work and higher morning cortisol values during work than during leisure time were observed in personnel with many health complaints, but not among their co-workers without or with few complaints. Ambulance personnel with many health complaints also reported higher psychological demands and tended to be more worried about work conditions.Heart rate (HR), lactate level (LL) and perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated in 17 female and 48 male ambulance personnel during a simulated standardized work task “carry a loaded stretcher”. The ambulance personnel had to carry the loaded stretcher (920 N) up and down three flights of stairs twice. The high physiological strain (HR, LL, RPE) for the male, and near or at maximal strain for the female ambulance personnel, implied the importance to identify what kind of physical capacity is most important for ambulance personnel. Therefore, the explained variance of developed fatigue by tests of cardiorespiratory capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and coordination was investigated. The results showed that VO2max and isometric back endurance were important predictors for development of fatigue when carrying a loaded stretcher.The influence of body size on the relationships between maximal strength and functional performance was investigated in a methodological study. The results confirm that the assessment of physical performance could be confounded by the body weight. Therefore, the models for explaining development of fatigue when carrying the loaded stretcher were adjusted for height and weight. Including height in the models significantly increased the explained variance of accumulated lactate among female, but not among male personnel. Lactate levels were higher among short compared to tall female personnel. Weight had no effect on any of the models.In conclusion, the national survey showed that self-reported physical demands was a risk factor of having MSDs, and that self-reported psychological demands and worry about work were important risk factors of having MSDs and other health complaints. Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time showed that physiological and subjective stress markers did not show any differences between the 24-hour ambulance work shift and leisure time afterwards. However, ambulance personnel with many health complaints had certain physiological changes during the work shift in comparison with the next two work-free days. The physiological and subjective responses during carrying a loaded stretcher, especially among the female ambulance personnel, showed that female and male ambulance personnel could be exposed to internal exposures at different levels when performing the same work task. A better understanding of the relationships between occupational demands and health-related outcomes require further studies on age- and gender matched groups in long-term perspective studies.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Personalens hälsa och arbetsmiljö
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Prehospital akutsjukvård. - Stockholm : Liber. - 978-91-47-08448-7 ; s. 33-38
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Abbasi, SH, et al. (författare)
  • Gender Differences in the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Iran
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Iranian Journal of Public Health. - 0304-4556. ; 41:3, s. 36-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Given gender differences in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the present study sought to investigate these dissimilarities amongst patients who underwent angiography at a major, tertiary heart hospital in Iran. Methods: Between 2005 and 2010, 44,820 patients who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in a registry. Pre-procedural data such as demographics, CAD risk factors, presenting symptoms, and laboratory tests, as well as postprocedural data were collected. The data were, subsequently, compared between the men and women. Results: Out of the 44,820 patients (16,378 women), who underwent coronary angiography, 37,358 patients (11,995 women) had CAD. Amongst the CAD patients, the females were not only significantly older, less educated, and more overweight than were the males but also had higher levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, highdensity lipoprotein, and fasting blood sugar (P< 0.001). Of all the risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus showed the strongest association in our female CAD patients (OR=3.45, 95%CI: 3.28-3.61 and OR=2.37, 95%CI: 2.26- 2.48, respectively). Acute coronary syndrome was more prevalent in the men (76.1% vs. 68.6%, P< 0.001), and chronic stable angina was more frequent in the females (31.4% vs. 23.9%, P< 0.001). With respect to post-procedural recommendations, the frequency of recommendations for non-invasive modalities was higher in the females (20.1% vs. 18.6%, P< 0.001). Conclusion: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus had the strongest association with CAD in our female patients. In the extensive CAD patients, medical treatment was recommended to the women more often.
  • Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic differences in the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease a patient-based study in Iran
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. - Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 2197-3792.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Diverse ethnic groups may differ regardingthe risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease(CAD). This study sought to assess the association betweenethnicity and CAD risk and severity in six majorIranian ethnic groups.Methods In this study, 20,165 documented coronary arterydisease patients who underwent coronary angiographyat a tertiary referral heart center were recruited. Thedemographic, laboratory, clinical, and risk factor data ofall the patients were retrieved. The Gensini score (anindicator of CAD severity) was calculated for all, andthe risk factors and severity of CAD were comparedbetween the ethnical groups, using adjusted standardizedresiduals, Kruskal–Wallis test, and multivariable regressionanalysis.Results The mean age of the participants (14,131[70.1%] men and 6034 [29.9%] women) was60.7 ± 10.8 years. The Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%)ethnic groups had the highest prevalence of ≥4 simultaneousrisk factors. The mean Gensini score was thehighest for the Gilaks (77.1 ± 55.9) and the lowestamong the Lors (67.5 ± 52.8). The multivariable regressionanalysis showed that the Gilaks had the worst severity(β 0.056, 95% CI 0.009 to 0.102; P = 0.018),followed by the Torks (β 0.032, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.059;P = 0.020). Meanwhile, the Lors showed the lowestseverity (β −0.087, 95% CI −0.146 to −0.027;P = 0.004).Conclusions This study found that there was heterogeneity inCAD severity and a diverse distribution in its well-knowntraditional risk factors among major Iranian ethnic groups.
  • Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin, et al. (författare)
  • Socioeconomic status and in‑hospital mortality of acute coronary syndrome can education and occupation serve as preventive measures?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 2008-7802. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) can greatly affect the clinical outcome of medical problems. We sought to assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to their SES.METHODS: All patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center due to 1(st)-time ACS between March 2004 and August 2011 were assessed. The patients who were illiterate/lowly educated (≤5 years attained education) and were unemployed were considered low-SES patients and those who were employed and had high educational levels (>5 years attained education) were regarded as high-SES patients. Demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and in-hospital medical progress data were recorded. Death during the course of hospitalization was considered the end point, and the impact of SES on in-hospital mortality was evaluated.RESULTS: A total of 6246 hospitalized patients (3290 low SES and 2956 high SES) were included (mean age = 60.3 ± 12.1 years, male = 2772 [44.4%]). Among them, 79 (1.26%) patients died. Univariable analysis showed a significantly higher mortality rate in the low-SES group (1.9% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible cofounders, SES still showed a significant effect on the in-hospital mortality of the ACS patients in that the high-SES patients had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio: 0.304, 95% confidence interval: 0.094-0.980; P = 0.046).CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with low SES were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality due to the ACS. Furthermore, the results suggest the need for increased availability of jobs as well as improved levels of education as preventive measures to curb the unfolding deaths owing to coronary artery syndrome.
  • Abid, Muhammad, 1981- (författare)
  • Global Supply Chain Design Exploring configurational and coordination factors
  • 2015
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis addresses the topic of global supply chain design. One major challenge concerns how to manage the tension between separation and integration pertaining to the localization of business activities. In this regard Ferdows (2008) worked to create two new production network models (rooted production network and footloose production network). Earlier studies have highlighted the choices that are involved in the network of facilities but lack in providing a comprehensive picture in terms of both configurational and coordination factors that govern the design of global supply chain. There is a need for a conceptual model where factors affecting the design process of a global supply chain can be applied. Two main research questions have been addressed in this study. First, exploring and identifying the factors affecting global supply chain design. Second, investigating the factors that influence the position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose supply chain design.      A literature review analysis and multi-case studies have been performed for this study in order to explore the factors. The companies were selected in order to reflect upon the two types of network, i.e., rooted and footloose. The primary data were selected through interviews with the managers.This study highlighted that there are many factors that affect configurational and coordination decision areas within a global supply chain. This study categorized the factors and the configurational/coordination decision areas with two main competitive priorities, i.e., cost and differentiation in the form of a “conceptual model.” The study also highlighted the factors in a matrix, which showed their position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose network configurations. For instance, the coordination factors that drive towards a footloose network include: high orchestration capabilities, need access to new technology and knowledge, proximity to suppliers, etc. The configurational factors that drive towards a rooted network include: economic stability, proximity to market, concerns for sustainability issues, high transportation cost, need for high proximity between key functions, need for intellectual property rights protection, etc.
  • Abolghasemi Kordestani, Arash, et al. (författare)
  • Supply chain process maturity and financial performance study of Swedish steel SMEs
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The goal of this research is to demonstrate that the financial performance of the current year in Swedish steel SMEs is dependent on the amount of maturity of supply chain processes. This is examined by considering current supply chain process maturities of the firm together with financial performance of prior years. It was found that the delivery process of supply chain processes and prior cost of goods sold (COGS) have an effect on current COGS. Additionally, prior inventory and plan process of the supply chain have a positive and negative effect on inventory turnover respectively.
  • Abrahamsen, Håkon B, et al. (författare)
  • Simulation-based training and assessment of non-technical skills in the Norwegian Helicopter Emergency Medical Services a cross-sectional survey
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Emergency Medicine Journal. - 1472-0205. ; 32:8, s. 647-653
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Human error and deficient non-technical skills (NTSs) among providers of ALS in helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is a threat to patient and operational safety. Skills can be improved through simulation-based training and assessment. Objective: To document the current level of simulation-based training and assessment of seven generic NTSs in crew members in the Norwegian HEMS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey, either electronic or paper-based, of all 207 physicians, HEMS crew members (HCMs) and pilots working in the civilian Norwegian HEMS (11 bases), between 8 May and 25 July 2012. Results: The response rate was 82% (n=193). A large proportion of each of the professional groups lacked simulation-based training and assessment of their NTSs. Compared with pilots and HCMs, physicians undergo statistically significantly less frequent simulation-based training and assessment of their NTSs. Fifty out of 82 (61%) physicians were on call for more than 72 consecutive hours on a regular basis. Of these, 79% did not have any training in coping with fatigue. In contrast, 72 out of 73 (99%) pilots and HCMs were on call for more than 3 days in a row. Of these, 54% did not have any training in coping with fatigue. Conclusions: Our study indicates a lack of simulation-based training and assessment. Pilots and HCMs train and are assessed more frequently than physicians. All professional groups are on call for extended hours, but receive limited training in how to cope with fatigue.
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