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Sökning: db:Swepub > Högskolan i Gävle > Lunds universitet > (2009) > Engelska

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  • Dahlgren, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Planning Rescue Services with Non-Stationary Rescue Units
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Fire Technology. - Springer. - 0015-2684. ; 45:3, s. 239-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Geographical accessibility is fundamental when planning rescue services. At present there are several programs for computing the accessibility of stationary rescue units. This study suggests a method for evaluating geographic accessibility in scenarios containing also non-stationary units. The method supports the planning process by matching the risk of an incident occurring with the rescue units’ capabilities and accessibility. The method is implemented in the computer program Rescue Unit Planner. The result of the analysis is presented in thematic maps and graphs as level of coverage, mean response time and concentration. The method and the computer program have been evaluated in two case studies: one urban area in southern Sweden and one rural area in northern Sweden. The case studies show that that this method can be useful in the rescue service planning process.
  • Hermele, Kenneth, et al. (författare)
  • Taking sustainability into account
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science for Sustainable Development. - Föreningen Vetenskap för Hållbar Utveckling (VHU). - 978-91-633-3660-7 ; s. 221-230
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • In this chapter we argue in favour of transparent accounting for ecological and social sustainability. Such accounting serves as a warning against economism by highlighting the social and ecological costs of economic growth that is accompanied by growing social inequalities, dissolution of trust and reciprocity in society, as well as by ecological destruction.We do this in four steps. First we briefly note that many analysts (including us – the two authors) are tempted to choose between two extremes. Either you settle for a one-dimensional measure, or you include so many dimensions that the end result becomes impossible to grasp. Secondly, we present an economic measure of the value of ecological services which we view as useful inter alia in order to establish ecological concerns in a society where economic considerations still dominate. Thirdly, we elaborate a new measure to “green” the Human Development Index, which we call the Sustainable Human Development Index. Fourthly, we discuss two problems with the SHDI: Substitutability and Modernity. We pursue our discussion against the background of the fact that the GDP still commands a unique position of influence over the social discourse of sustainability.However, the powerful position of this reductionist concept can be turned around to serve the interest of sustainability, in two ways. Firstly, by using economic measures of sustainability in order to argue for more demanding policies; and secondly, by reminding ourselves that even reductionist measures may serve good purposes, as when GDP calculations were part of the process of estimating available economic resources which in turn contributed to making the welfare state possible after the second world war.
  • Lindberg, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Interdialytic weight gain and ultrafiltration rate in hemodialysis : lessons about fluid adherence from a national registry of clinical practice
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Hemodialysis International. - 1492-7535. ; 13:2, s. 181-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excessive interdialytic weight gain (IWG) and ultrafiltration rates (UFR) above 10 mL/h/kg body weight imply higher morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of high fluid consumers, describe UFR patterns, and describe patient characteristics associated with IWG and UFR. The Swedish Dialysis DataBase and The Swedish Renal Registry of Active Treatment of Uremia were used as data sources. Data were analyzed from patients aged >/=18 on regular treatment with hemodialysis (HD) and registered during 2002 to 2006. Interdialytic weight gain and dialytic UFR were examined in annual cohorts and the records were based on 9693 HD sessions in 4498 patients. Differences in proportions were analyzed with the chi-square test and differences in means were tested using the ANOVA or the t test. About 30% of the patients had IWG that exceed 3.5% of dry body weight and 5% had IWG >/=5.7%. The volume removed during HD was >10 mL/h/kg for 15% to 23% of the patients, and this rate increased during the first dialytic year. Patient characteristics associated with fluid overload were younger age, lower body mass index, longer dialytic vintage, and high blood pressure. By studying IWG and dialytic UFR as quality indicators, it is shown that there is a potential for continuing improvement in the care of patients in HD settings, i.e., to enhanced adherence to fluid restriction or alternatively to extend the frequency of dialysis for all patients, e.g., by providing daily treatment.
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