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  • Bengtsson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluations of effects due to low-frequency noise in a low demanding work situation
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration. ; 278:1-2, s. 83-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Noise sources with a dominating content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. This study aimed to evaluate effects of moderate levels of low-frequency noise on attention, tiredness and motivation in a low demanding work situation. Two ventilation noises at the same A-weighted sound pressure level of 45 dB were used: one of a low-frequency character and one of a flat frequency character (reference noise). Thirty-eight female subjects worked with six performance tasks for 4 h in the noises in a between-subject design. Most of the tasks were monotonous and routine in character. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires and cortisol levels were measured in saliva. The major finding in this study was that low-frequency noise negatively influenced performance on two tasks sensitive to reduced attention and on a proof-reading task. Performances of tasks aimed at evaluating motivation were not significantly affected. The difference in work performance was not reflected by the subjective reports. No effect of noise was found on subjective stress or cortisol levels. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Boman, Tomas, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Can people with disabilities gain from education? Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Work : A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation. - 1051-9815.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: More knowledge is needed ofoccupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e. the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.Method: 3 396 informants with disabilities and 19 004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantlylarger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.
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5.
  • Byström, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Appraised psychological workload, musculoskeletal symptoms, and the mediating effect of fatigue: A structural equation modeling approach.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. ; 45, s. 331-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to test two structural models of the relationship between appraised psychological workload and musculoskeletal symptoms from the neck, shoulder, and upper and lower back with different aspects of perceived fatigue as mediating variables. In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire survey was conducted among employees at three Swedish assembly plants (n= 305). The proposed models were tested for one general fatigue dimension - lack of energy - and four specific fatigue dimensions - physical discomfort, physical exertion, lack of motivation, and sleepiness - using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the role of perceived fatigue in the relationship between appraised workload and musculoskeletal symptoms is different for different aspects of fatigue. The general fatigue dimension, lack of energy, does not mediate the relationship. As regards the specific fatigue dimensions, the relationship is partially mediated by physical discomfort and lack of motivation but not by physical exertion or sleepiness. Appraised psychological workload has a unique effect on musculoskeletal symptoms not mediated by fatigue.
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  • Hagström, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Changeability and gender related challenges of work values
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004.
  • Konferensbidrag (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Changeability of work values was studied by longitudinal analyses of nurses and engineers from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Questionnaires were completed by 173 male and 48 female engineers and 353 female and 31 male nurses at three measurement occasions covering about four and half years from the end of their vocational education. Women's ratings of Social relations and Altruism remained higher than men's while women & acute; ratings of Benefit/career and Influence increased which eliminated the initial gender difference. The changeability of work values is discussed in terms of challenges and norms in working life.
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8.
  • Hagström, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Stability and change in work values among male and female nurses and engineers
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. - 0036-5564. ; 48:2, s. 143-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gender related changes of work values were analyzed in a longitudinal questionnaire study of 173 male and 48 female engineers and 353 female and 31 male nurses at three measurement occasions covering about four and half years from the end of their vocational education. At all occasions, Social relations were rated as more important by women than by men and Altruism was given higher ratings by the nurses than by the engineers. Within both occupations women’s mean Altruism ratings were higher than men’s mean ratings, and in all groups except male engineers the mean ratings dropped between the three occasions. Women’s ratings of Benefits and career and Influence were strengthened in both occupations, thereby eliminating an initial gender difference. The stability of work values is discussed in terms of challenges and norms in working life.
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  • Hygge, Staffan, 1944-, et al. (författare)
  • Acoustical conditions in the classroom II : Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.
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