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3.
  • Bengtsson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluations of effects due to low frequency noise in a low demanding work situation
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration. - 0022-460X. ; 278:1-2, s. 83-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Noise sources with a dominating content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. This study aimed to evaluate effects of moderate levels of low-frequency noise on attention, tiredness and motivation in a low demanding work situation. Two ventilation noises at the same A-weighted sound pressure level of 45 dB were used: one of a low-frequency character and one of a flat frequency character (reference noise). Thirty-eight female subjects worked with six performance tasks for 4 h in the noises in a between-subject design. Most of the tasks were monotonous and routine in character. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires and cortisol levels were measured in saliva. The major finding in this study was that low-frequency noise negatively influenced performance on two tasks sensitive to reduced attention and on a proof-reading task. Performances of tasks aimed at evaluating motivation were not significantly affected. The difference in work performance was not reflected by the subjective reports. No effect of noise was found on subjective stress or cortisol levels. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Bengtsson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Sound characteristics in low frequency noise and their relevance for the perception of pleasantness
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Acta Acoustica. ; 90, s. 171-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Noise sources with a dominant content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. Work efficiency has been found in two earlier studies to be impaired to a larger degree when working in a low frequency ventilation noise than when working in a flat frequency ventilation noise at the same A-weighted sound pressure level. Other previous studies indicate that different sound characteristics found in low frequency noise are important for the way in which low frequency noise affects humans, and better knowledge of these characteristics could lead to better methods for assessing low frequency noise in occupational environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of frequency balance between low and high frequencies, which affects the slope of the frequency spectra, and the modulation frequency on subjects' perception of a pleasant low frequency noise. The results showed that the subjects preferred either a higher or a lower modulation frequency as compared to that of the original low frequency noise, both choices leading to less perceivable modulations. Furthermore, the subjects preferred a lower relative content of frequencies below 500 Hz, but only as long as the original low frequency noise contained modulations and the variations were made within a constant A-weighted sound pressure level. The results are discussed in relation to improved guidelines and to the previously suggested theory of slope of the frequency spectra and problems involved with the implementation of that theory.
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5.
  • Boman, Tomas, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Can people with disabilities gain from education? Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Work : A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation. - 1051-9815. ; 49:2, s. 193-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: More knowledge is needed ofoccupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e. the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.Method: 3 396 informants with disabilities and 19 004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantlylarger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.
6.
  • Boman, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Employment opportunities for persons with different types of disability
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alter;European Journal of Disability Research ;Journal Europeen de Recherche Sur le Handicap. - 1875-0672. ; 9:2, s. 116-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The employment status of groups with different disabilities wasanalysed as were potentially important moderating factors (workability, structural and individual factors). A secondary analy-sis was performed on 4359 respondents with disabilities fromStatistics Sweden's Labour Market Investigation. The respondentswere divided into six disability groups (communicative-hearing,communicative-speech-reading, communicative-vision, psycho-logical disability, medical disability, physical disability). Logisticregression analyses showed that the probability of being employedwas highest among respondents with hearing disabilities andrespondents with psychological disabilities were least likely tobe employed. Being a woman (very young or old) with onlyprimary education and with partially or very impaired workability, reduced employment opportunities. Higher education didnot increase employment opportunities for respondents withimpaired work ability. In summary, the type of disability is essentialfor employment opportunities, and differences between disabil-ity groups cannot be explained by differences in other variables. 
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7.
  • Byström, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Appraised psychological workload, musculoskeletal symptoms, and the mediating effect of fatigue: A structural equation modeling approach.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. ; 45, s. 331-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to test two structural models of the relationship between appraised psychological workload and musculoskeletal symptoms from the neck, shoulder, and upper and lower back with different aspects of perceived fatigue as mediating variables. In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire survey was conducted among employees at three Swedish assembly plants (n= 305). The proposed models were tested for one general fatigue dimension - lack of energy - and four specific fatigue dimensions - physical discomfort, physical exertion, lack of motivation, and sleepiness - using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the role of perceived fatigue in the relationship between appraised workload and musculoskeletal symptoms is different for different aspects of fatigue. The general fatigue dimension, lack of energy, does not mediate the relationship. As regards the specific fatigue dimensions, the relationship is partially mediated by physical discomfort and lack of motivation but not by physical exertion or sleepiness. Appraised psychological workload has a unique effect on musculoskeletal symptoms not mediated by fatigue.
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9.
  • Hagström, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Changeability and gender related challenges of work values
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004.
  • Konferensbidrag (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Changeability of work values was studied by longitudinal analyses of nurses and engineers from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Questionnaires were completed by 173 male and 48 female engineers and 353 female and 31 male nurses at three measurement occasions covering about four and half years from the end of their vocational education. Women's ratings of Social relations and Altruism remained higher than men's while women & acute; ratings of Benefit/career and Influence increased which eliminated the initial gender difference. The changeability of work values is discussed in terms of challenges and norms in working life.
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10.
  • Hagström, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Stability and change in work values among male and female nurses and engineers
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. - 0036-5564. ; 48:2, s. 143-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gender related changes of work values were analyzed in a longitudinal questionnaire study of 173 male and 48 female engineers and 353 female and 31 male nurses at three measurement occasions covering about four and half years from the end of their vocational education. At all occasions, Social relations were rated as more important by women than by men and Altruism was given higher ratings by the nurses than by the engineers. Within both occupations women’s mean Altruism ratings were higher than men’s mean ratings, and in all groups except male engineers the mean ratings dropped between the three occasions. Women’s ratings of Benefits and career and Influence were strengthened in both occupations, thereby eliminating an initial gender difference. The stability of work values is discussed in terms of challenges and norms in working life.
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