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  • Clark, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Noise & Health. - Medknow Publications. - 1463-1741. ; 14:61, s. 292-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on childrens cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on childrens cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on childrens learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and childrens learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more detail.
  • Domkin, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • Distraction of Eye-Hand Coordination Varies With Working Memory Capacity
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of motor behavior. - Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press) / Taylor and Francis (Routledge): STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles. - 0022-2895. ; 45:1, s. 79-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors present a study of the relationship between individual variation in working memory capacity (WMC) and visually guided hand control in the face of visual distraction. WMC was assessed with the automated operation span task. Hand control was measured by requesting participants to track a visual target with a hand-held touch screen pen. Tracking error increased when nontarget visual objects (distractors) appeared, especially in individuals with low WMC. High-WMC individuals are less impaired by distractors than their low-WMC counterpart, because they resume target tracking more quickly after distractor onset. The results suggest that visual distractors cause a momentary interruption to tracking movements and that high WMC attenuates this interruption by facilitating visual search.
  • Halin, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • A shield against distraction
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. - Elsevier. - 2211-3681. ; 3:1, s. 31-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we apply the basic idea of a trade-off between the level of concentration and distractibility to test whether a manipulation of task difficulty can shield against distraction. Participants read, either in quiet or with a speech noise background, texts that were displayed either in an easy-to-read or a hard-to-read font. Background speech impaired prose recall, but only when the text was displayed in the easy-to-read font. Most importantly, recall was better in the background speech condition for hard-to-read than for easy-to-read texts. Moreover, individual differences in working memory capacity were related to the magnitude of disruption, but only in the easy-to-read condition. Making a task more difficult can sometimes facilitate selective attention in noisy work environments by promoting focal-task engagement. 
  • Halin, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of speech on proofreading : can task-engagement manipulations shield against distraction?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied. - 1076-898X. ; 20:1, s. 69-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article reports 2 experiments that examine techniques to shield against the potentially disruptive effects of task-irrelevant background speech on proofreading. The participants searched for errors in texts that were either normal (i.e., written in Times New Roman font) or altered (i.e., presented either in Haettenschweiler font or in Times New Roman but masked by visual noise) in 2 sound conditions: a silent condition and a condition with background speech. Proofreading for semantic/contextual errors was impaired by speech, but only when the text was normal. This effect of speech was completely abolished when the text was written in an altered font (Experiment 1) or when it was masked by visual noise (Experiment 2). There was no functional difference between the 2 ways to alter the text with regard to the way the manipulations influenced the effects of background speech on proofreading. The results indicate that increased task demands, which lead to greater focal-task engagement, may shield against the distracting effects of background speech on proofreading. 
  • Halin, Niklas, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • The Effects of Sound on Proofreading : Can Task Engagement Shield from Distraction
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Performance on various cognitive tasks is impaired by task-irrelevant speech. The objective of this study was to manipulate the detrimental effects of task-irrelevant speech on a proofreading task, by increasing task engagement using an odd font (i.e. Haettenschweiler vs. Times). Texts were proofread in three different sound conditions (i.e. quiet, task-irrelevant speech and spectrally rotated speech). The participants searched for words (i.e. either content or function words) that were either misspelled or exchanged with contextually inappropriate words. Speech impaired detection of exchanged function words, but only when the text was written in Times, not when written in the odd font. Moreover, the participants missed fewer misspelled words in the speech condition, especially in Times, and they read more slowly in this sound condition. Taken together, these results indicate that proofreading behavior changes in the presence of task-irrelevant speech, to a more superficial/structural level of text processing (hence the improvement in detection of misspelled words), in comparison to the deeper/semantic level of text processing in the quiet condition (i.e., better detection of contextually inappropriate words). Greater task engagement (as indexed by the Haettenschweiler font), however, appears to protect the participant from the effect of sound on the ability to detect contextually inappropriate words.
  • Hurtig, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Acoustical conditions in the classroom : Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.
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