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1.
  • Ackerberg, Björn (författare)
  • Application of some statistical methods for evaluation of groundwater observations
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • With the objective of reviewing different statisticalmethods for evaluation of groundwater data and the design of agroundwater observation network, a comprehensive literaturesurvey was performed. The literature survey focuses on spatialstatistics (geostatistics) but also includes methods toevaluate time-series of groundwater data and the determinationof the sampling frequency. A method is developed which providesa means of quantifying the accuracy of an existing groundwatermonitoring network with regards to spatial interpolation andthe locations of the corresponding observation points. Thespatial interpolation method of ordinary kriging was used. Aresult from ordinary kriging was estimated (interpolated)levels at unmeasured points, but also a kriging variance. Thekriging variance can be interpreted as a measure of theestimation accuracy and used as a criterion for network design.Design of a monitoring network for groundwater levels in anarea includes the selection of: - the number of observationpoints and - the spatial locations of observation points.The method was applied to design a monitoring network inan area in a glaciofluvial deposit, the Nybro esker, which isthe main aquifer for the water supply of the Kalmar-Nybroregion in the southeast of Sweden. This thesis shows that it ispossible to quantify the accuracy of an existing observationnetwork using the average kriging variance as a measure ofaccuracy. It is also possible to describe how this krigingvariance changes (increases) when the observation network isreduced. By using this variance is it possible to rank thedifferent points in the network as to their relativeimportance. It is thus possible to identify the points, whichare to be removed when the observation network is reduced, onepoint at a time. This study shows that a monitoring network inthe study area could be reduced by 35% while the increase inaverage estimation (kriging) variance is only about 10%.Although the method is applied to groundwater levels in aglaciofluvial deposit, it is applicable also to other variablesthat can be considered regionalized and to other geologicalenvironments.
2.
  • Ahlström, Anders (författare)
  • Simulating Dynamical Behaviour of Wind Power Structures
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The workin this thesis deals with the development of anaeroelastic simulation tool for horizontal axis wind turbineapplications.Horizontal axiswind turbines can experience significanttime varying aerodynamic loads, potentially causing adverseeffects on structures, mechanical components, and powerproduction. The need of computational and experimentalprocedures for investigating aeroelastic stability and dynamicresponse have increased as wind turbines become lighter andmore flexible.A finite element model for simulation of the dynamicresponse of horizontal axis wind turbines has been developed.The simulations are performed using the commercial finiteelement software SOLVIA, which is a program developed forgeneral analyses, linear as well as non-linear, static as wellas dynamic. The aerodynamic model, used to transform the windflow field to loads on the blades, is a Blade- Element/Momentummodel. The aerodynamic code is developed by FFA (TheAeronautical Research Institute of Sweden) and is astate-of-the-art code incorporating a number of extensions tothe Blade-Element/Momentum formulation. SOSIS-W, developed byTeknikgruppen AB was used to develop wind time series formodelling different wind conditions.The model is rather general, and different configurations ofthe structural model and various type of wind conditions couldeasily be simulated. The model is primarily intended for use asa research tool when influences of specific dynamic effects areinvestigated.Simulation results for the three-bladed wind turbine Danwin180 kW are presented as a verification example.Keywords:aeroelastic modelling, rotor aerodynamics,structural dynamics, wind turbine, AERFORCE, SOSIS-W,SOLVIA
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4.
  • Altafini, Claudio, et al. (författare)
  • Hybrid control of a truck and trailer vehicle
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. - Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 0302-9743. - 3-540-43321-X ; 2289, s. 21-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A hybrid control scheme is proposed for the stabilization of backward driving along simple paths for a miniature vehicle composed of a truck and a two-axle trailer. When reversing, the truck and trailer can be modelled as an unstable nonlinear system with state and input saturations. Due to these constraints the system is impossible to globally stabilize with standard smooth control techniques, since some initial states necessarily lead to that the so called jack-knife locks between the truck and the trailer. The proposed hybrid control method, which combines backward and forward motions, provide a global attractor to the desired reference trajectory. The scheme has been implemented and successfully evaluated on a radio-controlled vehicle. Results from experimental trials are reported.
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10.
  • Andersson, Tove, 1972- (författare)
  • Approaches to differential gene expression analysis in atherosclerosis
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Today’s rapid development of powerful tools for geneexpression analysis provides unprecedented resources forelucidating complex molecular events.The objective of this workhas been to apply, combine andevaluate tools for analysis of differential gene expressionusing atherosclerosis as a model system. First, an optimisedsolid-phase protocol for representational difference analysis(RDA) was applied to twoin vitromodel systems. Initially, The RDA enrichmentprocedure was investigated by shotgun cloning and sequencing ofsuccessive difference products. In the subsequent steps,combinations of RDA and microarray analysis were used tocombine the selectivity and sensitivity of RDA with thehigh-throughput nature of microarrays. This was achieved byimmobilization of RDA clones onto microarrays dedicated forgene expression analysis in atherosclerosis as well ashybridisation of labelled RDA products onto global microarrayscontaining more than 32,000 human clones. Finally, RDA wasapplied for the investigation of the focal localisation ofatherosclerotic plaques in mice usingin vivotissue samples as starting material.A large number of differentially expressed clones wereisolated and confirmed by real time PCR. A very diverse rangeof gene fragments was identified in the RDA products especiallywhen they were screened with global microarrays. However, themicroarray data also seem to contain some noise which is ageneral problem using microarrays and should be compensated forby careful verification of the results.Quite a large number of candidate genes related to theatherosclerotic process were found by these studies. Inparticular several nuclear receptors with altered expression inresponse to oxidized LDL were identified and deserve furtherinvestigation. Extended functional annotation does not liewithin the scope of this thesis but raw data in the form ofnovel sequences and accession numbers of known sequences havebeen made publicly available in GenBank. Parts of the data arealso available for interactive exploration on-line through aninteractive software tool. The data generated thus constitute abase for new hypotheses to be tested in the field ofatherosclerosis.Keywords:representational difference analysis, geneexpression profiling, microarray analysis, atherosclerosis,foam cell formation
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