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Sökning: db:Swepub > Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan > (2002) > Forskningsöversikt

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Ackermann, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • An overview of wind energy-status 2002
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews. - 1364-0321. ; 6:1-2, s. 67-128
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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2.
  • Ahmadian, Afshin, et al. (författare)
  • A brief history of genetic variation analysis
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: BioTechniques. - 0736-6205. ; 32:5, s. 1122-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the human genome sequence is determined, there is an emerging need for the analysis of human sequence variations as genetic markers in diagnosis, linkage and association studies, cancer research, and pharmacogenomics. There are several different techniques and approaches for detecting these genetic variations, and here we review some of these techniques and their application fields. However, all the techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and factors such as laboratory instrumentation, personnel experience, required accuracy, required throughput, and cost often have to be taken into account before selecting a method.
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3.
  • Edlund, Ulrica, et al. (författare)
  • Degradable polymer microspheres for controlled drug delivery
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Advances in Polymer Science. - 0065-3195. ; 157, s. 67-112
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Controlled drug delivery technology is concerned with the systematic release of a pharmaceutical agent to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug in the body for a sustained period of time. This may be achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a degradable polymer vehicle, releasing the agent continuously as the matrix erodes. This review is concerned with degradable polymers for use in controlled drug delivery with emphasis on the preparation, applications, biocompatibility, and stability of microspheres from hydrolytically degradable polymers.
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4.
  • Furo, Istvan, et al. (författare)
  • NMR methods applied to anisotropic diffusion
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry. - 0749-1581. ; 40, s. S3-S14
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The methodology of NMR experiments intended to measure anisotropic diffusion is reviewed. Experiments of this kind preferably require oriented samples and/or orientation-dependent spin coupling and/or magnetic field gradients in different directions. One strategy of diffusion experiments in anisotropic systems with broad NMR lines employs line narrowing techniques, thereby allowing for efficient gradient encoding/decoding. Depending on the nuclei, spin couplings and samples, the preferred methods vary from decoupling through echo techniques to magic angle sample orientation and spinning. Another avenue to efficient gradient encoding/decoding is through very strong magnetic field gradients. Either way, anisotropic diffusion reveals new structural features as illustrated by a few selected examples in liquid crystals and in biological tissues.
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5.
  • Griffiths, P., et al. (författare)
  • NMR self-diffusion studies of polymeric surfactants
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science. - 1359-0294. ; 7:04-mar, s. 249-252
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability to visualise and quantify the mobility of particular components in multi-component solutions has had a profound impact on colloid science because the mobility of the species under investigation is determined not only by its chemical structure and size, but also by the physical environment in which it is located. These considerations are of course central to medical imaging (MRI) [1] and the MRI community has greatly benefited from the 'colloidal pioneers'. Thus, measurement and analysis of self-diffusion coefficients using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance technique (PGSE-NMR, sometimes referred to as PFG-NMR) permits a non-perturbing in-situ probing of complex structure. This is especially true for colloid science since the characteristic structural dimensions are comparable to the displacements on the NMR timescale.
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6.
  • Hakkarainen, Minna (författare)
  • Aliphatic polyesters : Abiotic and biotic degradation and degradation products
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Advances in Polymer Science. - 0065-3195. ; 157, s. 113-138
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper reviews the degradation behavior of aliphatic polyesters of current interest, including polylactide, polycaprolactone, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and their copolymers. Special focus is given to degradation products formed in different abiotic and biotic environments. The influence of processing and processing additives on the properties and degradation behavior is also briefly discussed.
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7.
  • Jing, Lanru, et al. (författare)
  • Numerical methods in rock mechanics
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences. - 1365-1609. ; 39:4, s. 409-427
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this CivilZone review paper is to present the techniques, advances, problems and likely future development directions in numerical modelling for rock mechanics and rock engineering. Such modelling is essential for Studying the fundamental processes occurring in rock,, for assessing the anticipated and actual performance of structures built on and in rock masses, and C hence for Supporting rock engineering design. We begin by providing the rock engineering design backdrop to the review in Section 1. The states-of-the-art of different types of numerical methods are outlined in Section 2, with focus on representations of fractures in the rock mass. In Section 3, the numerical methods for incorporating couplings between the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes are described. In Section 4, inverse solution techniques are summarized. Finally, in Section 5, we list the issues of special difficulty and importance in the subject. In the reference Est, 'significant' references are asterisked and 'very significant' references are doubly asterisked.
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8.
  • Jonasson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic design for facilitated production and recovery of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry. - 0885-4513. ; 35, s. 91-105
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic strategies have been used for more than two decades to improve bacterial bioprocesses and to simplify recovery procedures. Such strategies include the design of efficient expression vectors and the improvement of bacterial production strains in different ways, e.g. by deletion of protease genes or engineering for overexpression of rare-codon tRNAs, foldases or chaperones. Gene multimerization is another such principle that has proved beneficial to improve production yields. Genetic strategies have furthermore been exploited to facilitate recovery processes by adapting the product for a particular purification principle. In this area, affinity fusions have been commonly used, but other principles, such as modified isoelectric point (pI) or hydrophobic properties have also been successfully investigated. A recent drastic step forward in the use of gene technology to improve recovery processes for recombinant proteins is the introduction of combinatorial protein engineering to generate tailor-made product-specific affinity ligands. This strategy, which allows efficient recovery of a recombinant protein in its native form, is likely to be increasingly used also in industrial-scale bioprocesses, since novel protein ligands have been described that can be sanitized using common industrial cleaning-in-p lace procedures. The examples presented in this review make it evident that genetic strategies will be of utmost importance in the future for facilitating production and recovery of recombinant proteins.
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9.
  • Jönsson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Immobilized oxazoline-containing ligands in asymmetric catalysis - A review
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. - 0960-894X. ; 12:14, s. 1857-1861
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metal complexes of chiral oxazoline derivatives immobilized on soluble as well as insoluble supports serve as versatile asymmetric catalysts in a variety of applications. In a few cases recovery and reuse of the chiral ligands have been achieved.
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10.
  • Larhed, M., et al. (författare)
  • Microwave-accelerated homogeneous catalysis in organic chemistry
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Accounts of Chemical Research. - 0001-4842. ; 35:9, s. 717-727
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The efficiency of microwave flash heating in accelerating organic transformations (reaction times reduced from days and hours to minutes and seconds) has recently-been proven in several different fields of organic chemistry. This specific account mainly summarizes our own experiences in developing rapid, robust, and selective microwave-assisted transition metal-catalyzed homogeneous reactions. Applications include selective Heck couplings, cross-couplings, and asymmetric substitutions. The science of green chemistry was developed to meet the increasing demand for environmentally benign chemical processes. We believe the combination of metal catalysis and microwave heating will be of importance in the search for green laboratory-scale synthesis.
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