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  • Akerstrom, Jeanette, et al. (författare)
  • Young people as partners in research : experiences from an interactive research circle with adolescent girls
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Qualitative Research. - 1468-7941. ; 13:5, s. 528-545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article presents an interactive research methodology for young people's participation in research. A model of the research circle, based on the Scandinavian study-circle tradition with democratic ideals, was created and is described. The empirical example is from Sweden. Academic researchers invited young people to be research partners in a research circle. The asymmetrical relationship between the researchers and the young research partners made asymmetric responsibility and respect into central parts of the methodology. The interactive process in the research circle concerns research fundamentals: developing methodological knowledge, designing a study, how to formulate the research questions from the viewpoint of young people, how to analyze from a generational insider perspective, and how to handle institutionalized and asymmetric power relations in social knowledge formation.
  • Almqvist, Lena (författare)
  • Children's health and developmental delay
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The general aim of this thesis was to gain understanding of what patterns of child and environment characteristics that promote and sustain health and positive functioning of children with and without developmental delay or disabilities. The focus was on promotion of strengths and competencies rather than on prevention of risk factors, with an emphasis on children’s functioning in every-day life. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted on representative samples of children. In Study I, participation in school activities were used as an outcome of positive functioning of children with disabilities. The findings indicated that autonomy, locus of control, child-peer interaction, and availability of activities were most influential in relation to participation in a pattern of child and environment factors. No significant difference was found across groups in type and degree of disability. Study II was conducted to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. The interviews revealed that children perceived health in a multidimensional perspective, well represented by the health dimensions of ICF. The children largely related consequences of health to engagement. In Study III, engagement was used as an outcome of children’s interaction with their natural environment. The focus was to describe how children with and without developmental delay, divided into homogenous groups according to a pattern of child-environment interaction factors, engaged in developmentally appropriate behavior in their preschool and home environment. Groups of children with different patterns showed similar outcomes of engagement. Children with developmental delay were represented across groups, implying that developmental delay was less of a factor by itself influencing level of engagement. Study IV was longitudinal and the aim was to identify pathways of children’s engagement over time of children with and without developmental delay. Child-peer interaction seemed to promote high level engagement, while developmental delay only showed to be influential of low level engagement over time if combined with behavior problems. Children without developmental delay or behavior problems were met with greater teacher responsiveness, and at the same time teacher responsiveness predicted stable patterns of high level engagement or change to higher level engagement over time. The general finding in this thesis supported a both a multidimensional perspective of health and positive functioning, in where developmental delay and disability is viewed as a function of child and environmental characteristics. The results are discussed in a systemic perspective, in where the role of the delay or disability, as of other factors related to health and positive functioning in the whole child-environment system is determined by a multitude of factors. The dynamic character of children’s development makes it difficult to predict children’s future functioning, from isolated factors such as disability or developmental delay. Thus, a disability or developmental delay only becomes a risk factor of health, when combined with other risk factors that decrease the functioning of children in their every-day life.
  • Almqvist, Lena (författare)
  • Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities. - Malden, MA : Blackwel. - 1741-1122. ; 3:1, s. 65-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of process characteristics capturing the essence of children's experiences in their natural environment and their possible association with health and well-being operationalized as engagement for young children with and without developmental delay. Data were gathered from 1035 children between 1 and 3 years in community-based preschools. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires concerning interaction, activity, and engagement, as well as demographic and biopsychosocial information. A cluster analysis was conducted to find homogenous patterns related to engagement. Five distinct patterns were identified, all related to different levels of engagement. Several factors, within both the child and the environment, were associated with high levels of engagement. Interaction skills and availability of activities appear to be strong predictors of high-level engagement, regardless whether or not the child has been identified as developmentally delayed.
  • Andersén, Jim (författare)
  • A holistic approach to acquisition of strategic resources
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of European Industrial Training. - 0309-0590. ; 31:8, s. 660-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide a holistic framework for the acquisition of strategic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The literature dealing with resource creation is reviewed and analyzed from a resource-based point of view. The major methods of acquiring resources are identified through the literature review and the applicability of the framework proposed is illustrated with an empirical example. Findings: Three ways of acquiring strategic resources are identified-- direct investments, organizational processes, and product market positioning. All three ways of acquisition can be intentional or unintentional. Arguments for using this six-dimension scale are provided through deductive reasoning, literature review, and the empirical example. Research implications/limitations: The study identifies the six dimensions of strategic resource acquisition. However, integration of these dimensions is not a subject addressed in this study. Cluster analysis of companies according to these dimensions could enhance our understanding of the characteristics of companies regarding resource acquisition. Originality/value: Whereas previous studies have generally used a single-theory approach, this study highlights the importance of having a holistic outlook when analyzing resource-based competitive advantages.
  • Andersén, Jim (författare)
  • How and what to imitate? : A sequential model for the imitation of competitive advantages
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Strategic Change. - 1086-1718. ; 16:6, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in competitiveness generally focuses on how competitive advantages can be developed. This is an important area of research, but as a consequence the process of imitation of competitive advantages has become a neglected area of research.A conceptual sequential model for the imitation of competitive advantages is presented. The model mainly draws on resource-based theory, provides a holistic view of the imitation process, identifies different hindrances to imitation of competitive advantages, and presents arguments for the scheme chosen.
  • Arvidsson, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Factors related to self-rated participation in adolescents and adults with mild intellectual disability - A systematic literature review
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: JARID : Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities. - 1360-2322. ; 21:3, s. 277-291
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics and aspects of participation in young adults with mild intellectual disability. Method Four databases were used, 756 abstracts examined and 24 studies were evaluated in-depth. Results Four aspects of participation were found: involvement, perceptions of self, self-determination and psychological well-being. Reported environmental factors were: social support, choice opportunity, living conditions, school, work and leisure, attitudes, physical availability and society. Reported individual characteristics were adaptive and social skills. Conclusions There is a relative lack of studies of factors influencing self-rated participation and existing studies are difficult to compare because of disparity regarding approaches, conceptual frameworks, etc. For adequate interventions, it seems important to study how profiles of participation are influenced by different patterns of environmental factors and individual characteristics.
  • Bergbom, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship among pain catastrophizing, depression mood, and outcomes across physical therapy treatments
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Therapy. - 0031-9023. ; 91:5, s. 754-764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Pain catastrophizing and emotional distress can act as prognostic factors for pain and disability. Research on how these variables interact within individuals and over time is in an early stage. Understanding various patterns of prognostic factors and how these factors change during treatment is important for developing treatments targeting important factors.Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate relationships between pain catastrophizing and depressed mood in people seeking primary care for musculoskeletal pain. An additional aim was to relate these patterns of prognostic factors to outcomes during a 6-month period.Design The design was prospective; data were obtained at baseline and at follow-up.Methods Forty-two physical therapists taking part in an educational program recruited, from their clinical practices in primary care, consecutive patients who were currently experiencing a pain problem. Patients received various physical therapy interventions between baseline and follow-up.Results On the basis of patterns of scoring for pain catastrophizing and depressed mood, 4 subgroups of participants were found. Belonging to a subgroup with elevated levels of either pain catastrophizing or depressed mood at baseline was related to the absence of improvement and elevated levels of disability after physical therapy interventions. Furthermore, elevated levels of both variables were related to the highest levels of disability.Limitations The analyses relied on self-report. Neither treatment content nor pain-related fear was measured. The sample was a mixture of participants reporting acute pain and subacute pain.Conclusions The results stress the importance of assessing and targeting prognostic factors. Moreover, the results suggest the need to tailor treatments to match patterns of prognostic factors and the need to target depressed mood and pain catastrophizing in physical therapy interventions.
  • Blomberg, Helena (författare)
  • Mobbning, intriger, offerskap
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is a study of bullying narratives, mainly co-produced in a process of ongoing interaction. The focus is on how narrators rhetorically organize their storytelling and identity work by using discursive resources. The empirical material consists of 12 interviews with, and 12 written stories by people who have been exposed to workplace bullying plus information from three websites about bullying, and previous research. The overarching aim of the study is to identify how a bullying discourse is produced, reproduced, challenged and negotiated in bullied persons’ narratives. Specific aims are to determine how bullying is portrayed publicly, how narrators with experience of being bullied build their stories, how the narratives stand in relation to victimization, what makes it possible to talk about vulnerability and what are its limits, and finally to develop a narrative approach.Theoretically and methodologically, the study has its basis in narrative analysis, discursive psychology, conversation analysis, and metaphor analysis. The study shows how the narrators categorize themselves as active, competent, and consensus seeking. They resist being victimized, but by their use of the interpretative repertoire and a standard story of bullying, they nevertheless become indirectly victimized. What’s at stake, in the narratives, is the question of guilt, which they rhetorically evade by the use of different metaphors. These metaphors depict bullying as a mystery, a lifelong source of suffering, a transformation, a learning experience, a battle, a contagious virus, and a trap. The narrators are constrained by the narrative conditions, the interpretative repertoire, standard story, and narrative form and content – a story of good and evil when creating their own story. The narrative conditions at the same time set the limit for expressing oneself in the identity work. This also means we are part of the production and reproduction of the bullying discourse when I, as a researcher, and the narrators use the repertoire and the standard story in mutual understanding.
  • Brav, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. - 1359-432X. ; 18:3, s. 347-377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.
  • Brav, Agneta, 1955- (författare)
  • Industrial work groups : the impact of job design, leader support and group processes on initiative and self-organization
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • From an organizational perspective the issue of which organizational solutions will benefit productivity, efficiency and the innovation process is central. Work groups can be an effective means. The general aim of the thesis from a psychological perspective is to examine work conditions and thereafter investigate how such conditions impact on whether or not work groups redefine stipulated tasks to incorporate initiative-taking and self-organization, thus enabling them to implement meaningful change.Based on action regulation theory, detailed work task analysis is assumed to be worthwhile as it provides data that cannot be captured with interviews or questionnaires exclusively. Data is based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to work groups at four Swedish industrial organizations. In Study I a theoretical model of the relations of job design, work routines and social routines and reflexivity and learning processes was tested. Results showed that job design and work routines strongly impacted on reflexivity and learning processes. In Study II this model was extended into a theoretical inputprocess- output model to include group initiative and self-organizational activities as outcomes of job design, mediated by group processes. The model provided substantial, but not complete, support. Job design strongly impacts on reflexivity, and reflexivity directly impacts self organizational activities. To explore the importance of leadership support and potency longitudinally for group initiative, in Study III two data collections were included. The findings showed that potency, compared to perceived autonomy and support from leader, was the best predictor of group initiative. Together the studies show that the dimensions of job design, support from leader, reflexivity, and potency as well as cooperation and social support are important for the outcomes of work groups if the organization wants groups to take initiative and engage in self-organizational activities. It is also advocated that job design contains an inherent potential for learning and the possibility to make use of one’s resources. Main findings, strengths, limitations, practical and theoretical implications, directions for future research and when it will be worthwhile to invest in group work are included in the discussion.
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