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  • Agewall, S, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple risk intervention trial in high risk hypertensive men: comparison of ultrasound intima-media thickness and clinical outcome during 6 years of follow-up
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820. ; 249:4, s. 305-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The objective was to analyse whether a favourable change in risk factors, caused by a comprehensive risk factor modification programme, affected intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid artery, and whether any such change was associated with a change in cardiovascular events during a 6-year follow-up. DESIGN: Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to special intervention or usual care. SETTING: Hypertension Unit at university hospital. SUBJECTS: A total of 164 patients were randomized. Inclusion criteria were male, aged 50-72 years (at randomization) and one or more of the following: Serum cholesterol level > 6.5 mmol L(-1), smoking or diabetes mellitus. All patients were prescribed antihypertensive treatment since many years. In 142 men good quality ultrasound recording of the common carotid IMT were achieved at baseline, 119 were re-examined after 3.3 years, and 97 patients were available for examination after mean follow-up time of 6.2 years. Cardiovascular events were available for all randomized patients. INTERVENTIONS: The nonpharmacological special intervention programme was based on one information meeting followed by five weekly 2-h sessions with participation of patients and spouses. The diet recommendations were similar to established guidelines. Overweight patients were instructed to lose weight, and diabetic patients were systematically taught self-monitoring of blood glucose. Smokers were invited to a smoking cessation programme with five weekly meetings. Follow-up visits were thereafter scheduled every 6 months. Lipid lowering drugs were recommended in the intervention group if the treatment goals using nonpharmacological measures were not achieved. Patients in the usual care group were told to quit smoking and to lower their consumption of fat and glucose. Antihypertensive treatment (i.e., selection of drugs) was on purpose kept similar in the two groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The IMT of the common carotid artery as measured by ultrasound. Cardiovascular events during follow-up. RESULTS: Significant net reductions were seen for serum cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and smoking. No difference in change in IMT was observed during follow-up between the two randomization groups. The explanation was that patients with positive plaque status at baseline had a much larger increase in IMT over time than patients with negative plaque status, and that patients with positive plaque status more often survived and were available for re-examination after 6 years in the intervention group than in the usual care group. Total mortality was lower in the intervention group, compared with the usual care group, 13 and 29%, respectively (P=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: In high risk populations, long-term studies with surrogate endpoints may be misleading because of missing data in patients where a large increase in IMT would have been observed, had they been re-examined. Another important conclusion from our study was that the gloomy prognosis for this patient category may be improved by a dedicated risk factor intervention programme. The improved prognosis was observed mainly in those patients at highest risk judged from history of cardiovascular disease or positive ultrasound plaque status at baseline.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 15:12, s. 2427-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolizing enzymes, which often display genetic polymorphisms, are involved in the activation of compounds present in tobacco smoke that may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis. We report the results of a study looking at the association between risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, and GSTT1. A nested case-control study was carried out within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, developed in 10 European countries. The study includes 243 newly diagnosed cases of histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 946 controls matched by center, age, sex, and date of blood collection. Genotypes were determined in nuclear DNA from WBCs. We found an increased risk of gastric cancer for homozygotes for C (histidine) variant in Y113H of EPHX1 (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.07) compared with subjects with TC/TT. There was also a significant increased risk for smokers carrying at least one variant allele A in Ex7+129C > A (m4) of CYP1A1 and never smokers with null GSTT1 and allele A in the locus -3859G > A of CYP1A2. Most of these genes are involved in the activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggesting a potential role of these compounds in gastric carcinogenesis.
  • Airoldi, L, et al. (författare)
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts and risk of smoking-related disease in never smokers and former smokers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 14:9, s. 2118-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure [i.e, 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb) adducts] were predictive of the risk of tobacco-related cancers and diseases. We did a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, involving 190 controls and 149 cases (incident cancer of the lung, bladder, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, leukemias, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths). All individuals were never smokers or ex smokers for > 10 years. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were analyzed in peripheral blood collected before the onset of the disease (median, 7 years). Overall, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher, although not statistically significantly so, in cases (as a whole) than controls. In the control population, high fruit and vegetable consumption significantly lowered the frequency of detectable adducts (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.025). Restricting the analysis to women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher in cases than controls (Mann-Whitney P = 0.036) and the odds ratio (OR) for the presence/absence of adducts was 2.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.18-4.981. Moreover, the association of adducts with the individual cancer types was stronger in women than in the whole study population, although statistically significant only for leukemias (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.20). The results provide some evidence that women may be more susceptible to environmental tobacco smoke, as suggested by their higher adduct levels. The most important finding of this prospective study is that, at least in women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts may help identify subjects at high risk of cancers related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
  • Allen, N. E., et al. (författare)
  • Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 98:9, s. 1574-1581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.41, P-trend = 0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g day(-1) increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1-72%, P-trend = 0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer.
  • Amisten, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Increased risk of acute myocardial infarction and elevated levels of C-reactive protein in carriersof the Thr-87 variant of the ATP receptor P2Y11.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X. ; 28:1, s. 13-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Extracellular ATP acting on the P2Y(11) receptor regulates inflammatory cells. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the receptor could influence the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and results In the Malmo diet and cancer AMI case-control study (n = 3732) the P2Y(11) gene Thr-87 polymorphism was present in 19.8% of the controls and 22.9% in AMI patients (OR 1.21; P = 0.03). Stronger associations were found in patients with family history (FH) of AMI, 1.32; early-onset (EO) AMI, 1.43; or EO AMI combined with FH, 1.50; supporting a genetic mechanism. The Thr-87 homozygotes had an even greater risk of AMI, 1.94 (P = 0.04); and 2.48 in the EO AMI subgroup, suggesting a genetic dosage effect. In the cardiovascular risk factor group (n = 6055), 21.3% carried the Thr-87 allele. C-reactive protein was elevated in Thr-87 carriers: 1.6 mg/L vs. 1.3 mg/L (P = 0.001). No difference was seen for blood pressure, lipids, body mass index, smoking, or diabetes mellitus. Conclusion The common Ala-87-Thr polymorphism of the P2Y(11) receptor is associated with AMI and increased levels of C-reactive protein. We hypothesize that an inflammatory mechanism might be involved. The P2Y(11) receptor is a promising new drug target in the prevention of AMI.
  • Ballantyne, C., et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from observational studies of Lp-PLA(2) and cardiovascular diseases
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1741-8267 .- 1741-8275. ; 14:1, s. 41344
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A large number of observational epidemiological studies have reported generally positive associations' between circulating mass and activity levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have been large enough to provide reliable estimates in different circumstances, such as in different subgroups (e.g., by age group, sex, or smoking status) or at different Lp-PLA2 levels. Moreover, most published studies have related disease risk only to baseline values of Lp-PLA(2) markers (which can lead to substantial underestimation of any risk relationships because of within-person variability over time) and have used different approaches to adjustment for possible confounding factors. Objectives By combination of data from individual participants from all relevant observational studies in a systematic,meta-analysis, with correction for regression dilution (using available data on serial measurements of Lp-PLA(2)), the Lp-PLA(2) Studies Collaboration will aim to characterize more precisely than has previously been possible the strength and shape of the age and sex-specific associations of plasma Lp-PLA(2) with coronary heart disease (and, where data are sufficient with other vascular diseases, such as ischaemic stroke). It will also help to determine to what extent such associations are independent of possible confounding factors and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among studies, such as those related to assay methods and study design. It is anticipated that the present collaboration will serve as a framework to investigate related questions on Lp-PLA(2) and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods A central database is being established containing data on circulating Lp-PLA(2) values, sex and other potential confounding factors, age at baseline Lp-PLA(2) Measurement, age at event or at last follow-up, major vascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information about any repeat measurements of Lp-PLA2 and potential confounding factors has been sought to allow adjustment for possible confounding and correction for regression dilution. The analyses will involve age-specific regression models. Synthesis of the available observational studies of Lp-PLA(2) will yield information on a total of about 15 000 cardiovascular disease endpoints.
  • Bamia, C, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary patterns among older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press. - 1475-2662 .- 0007-1145. ; 94:1, s. 100-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival.
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