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1.
  • Adolfsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • A Sequential Probability Ratio Test Method for Quality Monitoring in Robotised GMA Welding
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1997 15th International Modal Analysis Conference : IMAC-XV. - 0-912053-53-4 ; s. vol 2, 1622-1628
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper deals with the problem of automatic monitoring the weld quality when welding with Gas Metal Arc (GMA) in short circuiting mode. Experiments with two different types of T-joints are performed in order to provoke optimal and non-optimal welding conditions. During the experiments, voltage and current are measured from the welding process. A simple statistical change detection algorithm for the weld quality, the repeated Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT), is used. The algorithm can equivalently be viewed as a cumulative sum (CUSUM) - type test. The test statistics is based upon the fluctuations of amplitude in the weld voltage. It is shown that the fluctuations of the weld voltage amplitude decreases when the welding process is not operating under optimal condition. The results obtained from the experiments indicate that it is possible to detect changes in the weld quality automatically and on-line.
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3.
  • Adolfsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • On-line quality monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Welding Journal. - 0043-2296. ; 78:2, s. 59S-73S
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the problems involved in the automatic monitoring of the weld quality produced by robotized short-arc welding. A simple statistical change detection algorithm for the weld quality, the repeated Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT), was used. The algorithm may similarly be viewed as a cumulative sum (CUSUM) type test, and is well-suited to detecting sudden minor changes in the monitored test statistic. The test statistic is based on the variance of the weld voltage, wherein it will be shown that the variance decreases when the welding process is not operating under optimal conditions. The performance of the algorithm is assessed through the use of experimental data. The results obtained from the algorithm show that it is possible to detect changes in weld quality automatically and on-line.
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4.
  • Adolfsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Quality Monitoring in Robotised Welding using Sequential Probability Ratio test
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: 1996 IEEE TENCON Digital Signal Processing Applications Proceedings. - 0780336798 ; s. xii+966 , 635-640, vol. 2
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the problem of automatic monitoring the weld quality produced by robotised short arc welding. A simple statistical change detection algorithm for the weld quality, recursive sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), is used. The algorithm may equivalently be viewed as a cumulative sum (CUSUM) type test. The test statistics is based upon the variance of the amplitude of the weld voltage. It is shown that the variance of the weld voltage amplitude decreases when the welding process is not operating under optimal condition. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using experimental data. The results obtained from the algorithm indicate that it is possible to detect changes in the weld quality automatically and on-line
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5.
  • Andrén, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Active Control of Boring Bar Vibrations Using the Leaky Feedback Filtered X-LMS
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Mechatronics and Machine Vision In Practice. - 0-86380-290-7 ; s. 377-384
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The boring operation is a cumbersome manufacturing process marred by noise and vibration related problems. The manufacturing industry is having trouble with these kinds of metal cutting operations. There exist several approaches to reduce the vibrations in cutting operations in general. Passive tuned dampers in boring bars have been commercially available for some time. An active solution is likely to be more robust to changes in the spectral content, where the passive counterpart have a small operable area, the active solution is able to adapt to these kinds of changes. Active vibration control in boring operations has been proven to be feasible. The algorithm used in the successful experiments was the feedback filtered X-LMS algorithm. This algorithm does however not guarantee a stable behavior, but incorporating a leakage factor will make the algorithm more robust. Power spectral density of boring bar vibration of real cutting experiments show that the leaky filtered X-LMS algorithm is a possible candidate to be a suitable control algorithm. Nyquist diagrams of the controller during operation show that the stability is increased significantly.
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6.
  • Andrén, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Active Control of Machine Tool Vibrations in External Turning Operations
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Engineering Manufacture. - 0954-4054. ; 217:6, s. 869-872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vibration and noise in metal cutting are ubiquitous problems in the workshop. The external turning operation is one kind of metal cutting that exhibits vibration related problems. Severe noise is also a problem growing in proportion due to regulations in preventing hearing loss. Active vibration control is a potential solution to such problems. With the piezo ceramic actuator technology of today, the size of the actuator can be kept small and still be able to produce a sufficient amount of force for the anti vibrations. Results from several continuous cutting experiments show a 40 dB reduction of the cutting tool vibration level. The design of the active technique enables this technology to be applicable to a general lathe provided the mounting arrangement is fairly similar.
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7.
  • Andrén, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Active Noise Control Experiments in a Fork-lift Truck Cabin
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: 11th International Congress on Sound and Vibration.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High comfort for the driver in working vehicles is an important feature as well as a demand from the drivers. Low noise level is an essential factor for the manufacturer to maintain a high standard and comfort of vehicles. In many cases the noise inside the cabin can be related to the engine orders. Hydraulic pumps and fans are also related to the engine but not necessarily integers of the engine order. Passive absorbers are not suitable for the lowest frequencies and one approach is to use an active noise control system to solve the noise problem at low frequencies. In the present experiment loudspeakers were mounted inside the cabin of a fork lift-truck to produce the secondary noise field. To sense the residual noise, microphones were installed close to the driver's head. The aim is to create a zone of reduced noise around the head. Since a large portion of the noise inside the cabin can be related to the engine, an active control system based on a feedforward solution is possible. Experimental results from a feedforward solution of active noise control in a fork-lift truck cabin show that the noise level in the low frequency region can be reduced significantly.
8.
  • Andrén, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Actuator placements and Variations in the Control Path estimates in the Active Control of Boring Bar Vibrations
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: 11th International Congress on Sound and Vibration.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A classical example of chatter prone machining is the boring operation. Turning under conditions with high vibrations in the cutting tool deteriorates the surface finish and may cause tool breakage. Severe noise is also a consequence of the high vibration levels in the boring bar. Active control is one possible solution to the noise and vibration problem in boring operations. In boring operations the boring bar usually have vibration components in both the cutting speed and the cutting depth direction. The introduction of the control force in different angles in between the cutting speed and the cutting depth directions have been investigated. Furthermore, control path estimates produced when the active boring bar was not in contact with the workpiece and during continuous cutting operation are compared. Experimental results indicate that the control force should be introduced in the cutting speed direction. Although the vibrations are controlled in just the cutting speed direction the vibrations in the cutting depth direction are also reduced significantly.
9.
  • Andrén, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Dynamic Properties of Boring Bar Vibrations in a Continuous Boring Operation
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing. - 0888-3270. ; 18:4, s. 869-901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vibrations in internal turning operations are usually a cumbersome part of the manufacturing process. This article focuses on the boring bar vibrations. Boring bar vibrations in alloyed steel, stainless steel and cast iron have been measured in both the cutting speed direction and the cutting depth direction with the aid of accelerometers. The dynamic response of a boring bar seem to be a time varying process that exhibits non-linear behaviour. The process is influenced by non-stationary parameters that are not under the control of the operator or experimenter. The vibrations are clearly dominated by the first resonance frequency in one of the two directions of the boring bar. The problem with force modulation in rotary machinery, which appears as side band terms in the spectrum, is also addressed. Furthermore, the resonance frequencies of the boring bar are correlated to an Euler-Bernoulli beam model.
10.
  • Andrén, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Motion of Cutting Tool Vibration in a Continuous Boring Operation Correlation to structural Properties
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing. - 0888-3270. ; 18:4, s. 903-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The internal turning operation has a history of being a cumbersome metal working process as vibration in boring operations is usually inevitable. In this article, the deflection shapes and/or mode shapes as well as the resonance frequencies of a boring bar have been put under scrutiny. Three methods have been used in order to investigate dynamic properties of a clamped boring bar: a theoretical Euler-Bernoulli beam model, an experimental modal analysis and an operating deflection shape analysis. \\ The results indicate a correlation between the shapes of the deflection shapes and/or mode shapes produced by the three different analysis methods. On the other hand, the orientation of the forced deflection shapes and/or mode shapes and the resonance frequencies demonstrates differences between the three methods. During continuous cutting, it is demonstrated that the bending motion of the first two resonance frequencies is to a large extent in the cutting speed direction.
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