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1.
  • CD, Andersen, et al. (författare)
  • Worse glycaemic control in LADA patients than in those with type 2 diabetes, despite a longer time on insulin therapy.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 1432-0428.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to study whether glycaemic control differs between individuals with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and patients with type 2 diabetes, and whether it is influenced by time on insulin therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 372 patients with LADA (205 men and 167 women; median age 54 years, range 35-80 years) from Swedish cohorts from Skåne (n = 272) and Västerbotten (n = 100). Age- and sex-matched patients with type 2 diabetes were included as controls. Data on the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs), insulin and insulin-OHA combination therapy was retrieved from the medical records. Poor glycaemic control was defined as HbA(1c) ≥7.0% (≥53 mmol/mol) at follow-up. RESULTS: The individuals with LADA and with type 2 diabetes were followed for an average of 107 months. LADA patients were leaner than type 2 diabetes patients at diagnosis (BMI 27.7 vs 31.0 kg/m(2); p < 0.001) and follow-up (BMI 27.9 vs 30.2 kg/m(2); p < 0.001). Patients with LADA had been treated with insulin for longer than those with type 2 diabetes (53.3 vs 28.8 months; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the patient groups with regard to poor glycaemic control at diagnosis, but more patients with LADA (67.8%) than type 2 diabetes patients (53.0%; p < 0.001) had poor glycaemic control at follow-up. Patients with LADA had worse glycaemic control at follow-up compared with participants with type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2, 2.7), adjusted for age at diagnosis, HbA(1c), BMI at diagnosis, follow-up time and duration of insulin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Individuals with LADA have worse glycaemic control than patients with type 2 diabetes despite a longer time on insulin therapy.
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2.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Fasting Versus Postload Plasma Glucose Concentration and the Risk for Future Type 2 Diabetes Results from the Botnia Study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 32:2, s. 281-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the postload plasma glucose concentration in predicting future risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with prediction models based oil measurement. of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 2,442 subjects from the Botnia Study, who were free Of type 2 diabetes at baseline, received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. Future risk for type 2 diabetes was assessed with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for prediction models based up measurement of the FPG concentration 1) with or without a 1-h plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and 2) with or without the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS - Prediction models based on measurement of the FPG concentration were weak predictors for the risk of Future type 2 diabetes. Addition of a 1-h plasma glucose Concentration markedly enhanced prediction Of the risk of future type 2 diabetes. A cut point of 155 mg/dl for the 1-h plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and presence Of the metabolic syndrome were used to Stratify subjects in each glucose tolerance group into low, intermediate, and high risk for future type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - The plasma glucose concentration at 1 h during the OGTT is a Strong predictor of future risk for type 2 diabetes and adds to the prediction power of models based on measurements made during the fasting state. A plasma glucose cut point of 155 mg/dl Plus the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome can be used to stratify nondiabetic subjects into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups.
3.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Minimal Contribution of Fasting Hyperglycemia to the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Subjects With Normal 2-h Plasma Glucose
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 33:3, s. 557-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - To assess the relative contribution of increased fasting and postload plasma glucose concentrations to the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with a normal 2-h plasma glucose concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 3,450 subjects with 2-h plasma glucose concentration < 140 mg/dl at baseline were followed up in the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and the Botnia Study for 7-8 years. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was related to the fasting, 1-h, and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS - in subjects with 2-h plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl, the incidence of type 2 diabetes increased with increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. In a multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for all diabetes risk factors, the FPG concentration was a Strong predictor Of type 2 diabetes in both the SAHS and the Botnia Study (P < 0.0001). However, when the 1-h plasma glucose, but not 2-h plasma glucose, concentration was added to the model, FPG concentration was no longer a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes in both Studies (NS). When subjects were matched for the level of 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the incidence Of type 2 diabetes markedly increased with the increase in 1-h plasma glucose, but the increase in FPG was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - An increase in postload glycemia in the normal range is associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. After controlling for 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the increase in FPG concentration is not associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
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4.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • The shape of plasma glucose concentration curve during OGTT predicts future risk of type 2 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. - Wiley InterScience. - 1520-7552. ; 26:4, s. 280-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the shape of plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and future risk for T2DM. Methods 2445 non-diabetic subjects from the Botnia study received an OGTT at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. Results NGT and IFG subjects who returned their plasma glucose concentration following an ingested glucose load below FPG within 60 min had increased insulin sensitivity, greater insulin secretion and lower risk for future T2DM compared to NGT and IFG subjects whose post-load plasma glucose concentration required 120 min or longer to return their plasma glucose level to FPG level. IGT subjects who had a lower plasma glucose concentration at 1-h compared to 2-h during oGrr had greater insulin sensitivity, better beta cell function and lower risk for future T2DM. Conclusions These data suggest that the shape of glucose curve can be utilized to assess future risk for T2DM. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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5.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Two-Step Approach for the Prediction of Future Type 2 Diabetes Risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - Amer Diabetes Assoc. - 0149-5992. ; 34:9, s. 2108-2112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To develop a model for the prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk on the basis of a multivariate logistic model and 1-h plasma glucose concentration (1-h PG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The model was developed in a cohort of 1,562 non-diabetic subjects from the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and validated in 2,395 nondiabetic subjects in the Botnia Study. A risk score on the basis of anthropometric parameters, plasma glucose and lipid profile, and blood pressure was computed for each subject. Subjects with a risk score above a certain cut point were considered to represent high-risk individuals, and their 1-h PG concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test was used to further refine their future T2DM risk. RESULTS-We used the San Antonio Diabetes Prediction Model (SADPM) to generate the initial risk score. A risk-score value of 0.065 was found to be an optimal cut point for initial screening and selection of high-risk individuals. A 1-h PG concentration >140 mg/dL in high-risk individuals (whose risk score was >0.065) was the optimal cut point for identification of subjects at increased risk. The two cut points had 77.8, 77.4, and 44.8% (for the SAHS) and 75.8, 71.6, and 11.9% (for the Botnia Study) sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, respectively, in the SAHS and Botnia Study. CONCLUSIONS-A two-step model, based on the combination of the SADPM and 1-h PG, is a useful tool for the identification of high-risk Mexican-American and Caucasian individuals. Diabetes Care 34:2108-2112, 2011
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6.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • A common variant upstream of the PAX6 gene influences islet function in man.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 1432-0428. ; 55, s. 94-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired insulin secretion have been reported in families with PAX6 mutations and it is suggested that they result from defective proinsulin processing due to lack of prohormone convertase 1/3, encoded by PCSK1. We investigated whether a common PAX6 variant would mimic these findings and explored in detail its effect on islet function in man. METHODS: A PAX6 candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (rs685428) was associated with fasting insulin levels in the Diabetes Genetics Initiative genome-wide association study. We explored its potential association with glucose tolerance and insulin processing and secretion in three Scandinavian cohorts (N = 8,897 individuals). In addition, insulin secretion and the expression of PAX6 and transcriptional target genes were studied in human pancreatic islets. RESULTS: rs685428 G allele carriers had lower islet mRNA expression of PAX6 (p = 0.01) and PCSK1 (p = 0.001) than AA homozygotes. The G allele was associated with increased fasting insulin (p (replication) = 0.02, p (all) = 0.0008) and HOMA-insulin resistance (p (replication) = 0.02, p (all) = 0.001) as well as a lower fasting proinsulin/insulin ratio (p (all) = 0.008) and lower fasting glucagon (p = 0.04) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) (p = 0.05) concentrations. Arginine-stimulated (p = 0.02) insulin secretion was reduced in vivo, which was further reflected by a reduction of glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively) in human islets in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A common variant in PAX6 is associated with reduced PAX6 and PCSK1 expression in human islets and reduced insulin response, as well as decreased glucagon and GIP concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. These findings emphasise the central role of PAX6 in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism in man.
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7.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • A link between GIP and osteopontin in adipose tissue and insulin resistance.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 62:6, s. 2088-2094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophagederived cytokine osteopontin in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate osteopontin (OPN) expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher in adipose tissue of obese individuals (0.13±}0.04 vs 0.04±}0.01, P<0.05) and correlated inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity (r=-0.24, P=0.001). A common variant of the GIP receptor (GIPR) (rs10423928) gene was associated with lower amount of the exon 9 containing isoform required for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A-allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone, but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Carriers of GIPR rs10423928 A-allele showed protective properties via reduced GIP effects. Identification of this unprecedented link between GIP and OPN in adipose tissue might open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.
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8.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical chemistry. - 1530-8561. ; 57, s. 241-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder that is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the disease-affecting genes to better understand the disease pathogenesis, find new targets for clinical therapy, and allow prediction of disease. CONTENT: Our knowledge about the genes involved in disease pathogenesis has increased substantially in recent years, thanks to genome-wide association studies and international collaborations joining efforts to collect the huge numbers of individuals needed to study complex diseases on a population level. We have summarized what we have learned so far about the genes that affect T2D risk and their functions. Although more than 40 loci associated with T2D or glycemic traits have been reported and reproduced, only a minor part of the genetic component of the disease have been explained, and the causative variants and affected genes are unknown for many of the loci. SUMMARY: Great advances have recently occurred in our understanding of the genetics of T2D, but much remains to be learned about the disease etiology. The genetics of T2D has so far been driven by technology, and we now hope that next-generation sequencing will provide important information on rare variants with stronger effects. Even when variants are known, however, great effort will be required to discover how they affect disease risk.
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9.
  • Ahluwalia, Tarun, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in CNDP1 and CNDP2, and risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 54, s. 2295-2302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Several genome-wide linkage studies have shown an association between diabetic nephropathy and a locus on chromosome 18q harbouring two carnosinase genes, CNDP1 and CNDP2. Carnosinase degrades carnosine (β-alanyl-L-: histidine), which has been ascribed a renal protective effect as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the putative associations of genetic variants in CNDP1 and CNDP2 with diabetic nephropathy (defined either as micro- or macroalbuminuria) and estimated GFR in type 2 diabetic patients from Sweden. METHODS: We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D18S880, five to seven leucine repeats) in CNDP1 and CNDP2 in a case-control set-up including 4,888 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients (with and without nephropathy) from Sweden (Scania Diabetes Registry). RESULTS: Two SNPs, rs2346061 in CNDP1 and rs7577 in CNDP2, were associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy (rs2346061 p = 5.07 × 10(-4); rs7577 p = 0.021). The latter was also associated with estimated GFR (β = -0.037, p = 0.014), particularly in women. A haplotype including these SNPs (C-C-G) was associated with a threefold increased risk of diabetic nephropathy (OR 2.98, 95% CI 2.43-3.67, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that common variants in CNDP1 and CNDP2 play a role in susceptibility to kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
10.
  • Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S, et al. (författare)
  • Uromodulin gene variant is associated with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of hypertension. - 1473-5598. ; 29, s. 1731-1734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: About 35% of individuals with type 2 diabetes develop persistent albuminuria, lose renal function, and are at increased risk for microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified the uromodulin locus (UMOD), encoding the most common protein in human urine to be associated with hypertension and also with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study we examined the association of the common variant of the uromodulin (UMOD) gene with type 2 diabetic nephropathy and kidney function. METHODS: UMOD variant rs13333226 was genotyped in a case-control material including 4888 unrelated type 2 diabetic individuals (n = 880 with and n = 4008 without nephropathy) from Sweden (Scania Diabetes Registry) using the ABI Real time TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. RESULTS: The G allele of rs13333226 was associated with a decreased risk of nephropathy odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-0.91, P = 0.001 after correction for confounding factors like age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, kidney function, smoking and duration of diabetes. The same allele was also associated with a better kidney function estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), β = 0.117, P < 0.0001 and lower systolic blood pressure (β = -0.048, P = 0.013) in the overall study cohort. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The present study highlights that the common variant of the UMOD gene is protective against diabetic nephropathy susceptibility and also affects kidney function and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the association with diabetic nephropathy was independent of blood pressure and kidney function.
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