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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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1.
  • Grange, Matt, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling the Computational Efficiency of 2-D and 3-D Silicon Processors for Early-Chip Planning
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 2011 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). - 978-1-4577-1398-9 - 978-1-4577-1399-6 ; s. 310-317
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hierarchical models from physical to system-level are proposed for architectural exploration of high-performance silicon systems to quantify the performance and cost trade offs for 2-D and 3-D IC implementations. We show that 3-D systems can reduce interconnect delay and energy by up to an order of magnitude over 2-D, with an increase of 20-30% in performance-per-watt for every doubling of stack height. Contrary to previous analysis, the improved energy efficiency is achievable at a favorable cost. The models are packaged as a standalone tool and can provide fast estimation of coarse-grain performance and cost limitations for a variety of processing systems to be used at the early chip-planning phase of the design cycle.
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2.
  • Grange, Matt, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling the Efficiency of Stacked Silicon Systems : Computational, Thermal and Electrical Performance
  • 2011
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Technological advances in processor design have typically reliedon scaling feature size and frequency. Recently however, many new design choiceshave emerged partly due to the slowing of scaling:– Many-core architectures arebeginning to replace single-core ICs to circumvent 2-D bottlenecks, The number ofI/Os are on the rise, so the cost of off-chip transactions is becoming heftier. Moreover,3-D Integration may provide further performance benefits without investment in lowertechnology nodes. Understanding these trade-offs can provide guidelines to optimizethe architecture of future systems under performance, thermal and cost constraints.We have constructed a model and tool that assesses computational efficiency underthese criteria.
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3.
  • Grange, Matt, et al. (författare)
  • Optimal Network Architectures for Minimizing Average Distance in k-ary n-dimensional Mesh Networks
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: NOCS 2011: The 5th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip. ; s. 57-64
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A general expression for the average distance for meshes of any dimension and radix, including unequal radices in different dimensions, valid for any traffic pattern under zero-load condition is formulated rigorously to allow its calculation without network-level simulations. The average distance expression is solved analytically for uniform random traffic and for a set of local random traffic patterns. Hot spot traffic patterns are also considered and the formula is empirically validated by cycle true simulations for uniform random, local, and hot spot traffic. Moreover, a methodology to attain closed-form solutions for other traffic patterns is detailed. Furthermore, the model is applied to guide design decisions. Specifically, we show that the model can predict the optimal 3-D topology for uniform and local traffic patterns. It can also predict the optimal placement of hot spots in the network. The fidelity of the approach in suggesting the correct design choices even for loaded and congested networks is surprising. For those cases we studied empirically it is 100%.
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4.
  • Grange, Matt, et al. (författare)
  • Physical mapping and performance study of a multi-clock 3-Dimensional Network-on-Chip mesh
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 3D SYSTEMS INTEGRATION. - San Francisco : IEEE conference proceedings. - 978-1-4244-4511-0 ; s. 345-351
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The physical performance of a 3-Dimensional Network-on-Chip (NoC) mesh architecture employing through silicon vias (TSV) for vertical connectivity is investigated with a cycle-accurate RTL simulator. The physical latency and area impact of TSVs, switches, and the on-chip interconnect is evaluated to extract the maximum signaling speeds through the switches, horizontal and vertical network links. The relatively low parasitics of TSVs compared to the on-chip 2-D interconnect allow for higher signaling speeds between chip layers. The system-level impact on overall network performance as a result of clocking vertical packets at a higher rate through the TSV interconnect is simulated and reported.
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5.
  • Jantsch, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • The Promises and Limitations of 3-D Integration
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 3D Integration for NoC-based SoC Architectures. - Springer Publishing Company. ; s. 27-44
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The intrinsic computational efficiency (ICE) of silicon defines the upper limit of the amount of computation within a given technology and power envelope. The effective computational efficiency (ECE) and the effective computational density (ECD) of silicon, by taking computation, memory and communication into account, offer a more realistic upper bound for computation of a given technology. Among other factors, they consider how distributed the memory is, how much area is occupied by computation, memory and interconnect, and the geometric properties of 3-D stacked technology with through silicon vias (TSV) as vertical links. We use ECE and ECD to study the limits of performance under different memory distribution constraints of various 2-D and 3-D topologies, in current and future technology nodes. Among other results, our model shows that in a 35 nm technology a 16 stack 3-D system can, as a theoretical upper limit, obtain 3.4 times the performance of a 2-D system (8.8 Tera OPS vs 2.6 TOPS) at 70% reduced frequency (2.1 vs 3.7 GHz) on 1/8 the total area (50 vs 400 mm2).
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6.
  • Pamunuwa, Dinesh, et al. (författare)
  • 3-D Integration and the Limits of Silicon Computation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). ; s. 343-348
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The intrinsic computational efficiency (ICE) of silicon defines the upper limit of the amount of computation within a given technology and power envelope. The effective computational efficiency (ECE) and the effective computational density (ECD) of silicon, by taking computation, memory and communication into account, offer a more realistic upper bound for computation of a given technology. Among other factors, they consider how distributed the memory is, how much area is occupied by computation, memory and interconnect, and the geometric properties of 3-D stacked technology with through silicon vias (TSV) as vertical links. We use the ECE and ECD to study the limits of performance under different memory distribution, power, thermal and cost constraints for various 2-D and 3-D topologies, in current and future technology nodes.
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7.
  • Pamunuwa, Dinesh, et al. (författare)
  • A study on the implementation of 2-D mesh-based networks-on-chip in the nanometre regime
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Integration. - 0167-9260. ; 38:1, s. 3-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On-chip packet-switched networks have been proposed for future giga-scale integration in the nanometre regime. This paper examines likely architectures for such networks and considers trade-offs in the layout, performance, and power consumption based on full-swing, voltage-mode CMOS signalling. A study is carried out for a future technology with parameters as predicted by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to yield a quantitative comparison of the performance and power trade-off for the network. Important physical level issues are discussed.
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8.
  • Weldezion, Awet Yemane, et al. (författare)
  • Scalability of Network-on-Chip Communication Architecture for 3-D Meshes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: 2009 3RD ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON NETWORKS-ON-CHIP. - NEW YORK : IEEE. - 978-1-4244-4142-6 ; s. 114-123
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Design Constraints imposed by global interconnect delays as well as limitations in integration of disparate technologies make 3-D chip stacks an enticing technology solution for massively integrated electronic systems. The scarcity of vertical interconnects however imposes special constraints on the design of the communication architecture. This article examines the performance and scalability of different communication topologiesfor 3-D Network-on-Chips (NoC) using Through-Silicon-Was (TSV) for inter-die connectivity. Cycle accurate RTL-level simulations are conducted for two communication schemes based on a 7-port switch and a centrally arbitrated vertical bus using different traffic patterns. The scalability of the 3-D NoC is examined under both communication architectures and compared to 2-D NoC structures in terms of throughput and latency in order to quantify the variation of network performance with the number of nodes and derive key design guidelines.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
 
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