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1.
  • Karlsson, Magnus, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Indications of recovery from hypoxia in the inner Stockholm archipelago
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447. ; 39:7, s. 486-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Improved benthic conditions compared to the 1990s were found during benthic investigations, including sediment and benthic macrofauna in the inner Stockholm archipelago during 2008. In the 1990s, these areas were dominated by black and laminated surface sediments and very sparse fauna. A clear relationship was found when comparing sediment status with the benthic macrofauna. Reduced surface sediment and impoverished macroinvertebrate community was only found at one sampling station representing an enclosed part of the inner archipelago, whereas the other seven stations, with depths ranging from 20 to 50 m, had oxidized   surface sediments and considerable biomasses of benthic macrofauna   (6-65 g m(-2)) dominated by the invading polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta. An extrapolation of the results shows that, within the investigated area, the coverage of reduced surface sediments had decreased from approximately 17% in the late 1990s to 4% in 2008.
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2.
  • Karlsson, O Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Application of a mass-balance model to predict PCDD/F turnover in a Baltic coastal estuary
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. - 0272-7714. ; 88:2, s. 209-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A dynamical, process-based mass-balance model was applied to quantify the transports of polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to, within and from the Kallrigafjarden Bay, a coastal estuary in the Baltic Sea, and to predict the PCDD/F levels in the water and sediments of the bay. Before the modelling, a one-year sampling programme was implemented in 2007-2008 to measure the flows of PCDD/Fs in tributaries entering the system, the fluxes from the adjacent sea and the levels in water, sediment and fish within the estuary. The collected data set was used as input data to the model and for validation purposes.The model was originally developed and tested for suspended particulate matter and phosphorus in Baltic coastal areas. In this work, it was run monthly without any tuning of the original model variables. The simulation results compared favourably with the field measurements of levels of 15 PCDD/F congeners in the water and sediments of the bay. The dominating fluxes of PCDD/Fs were the exchange with the adjacent sea, followed by riverine input, atmospheric deposition and sediment burial.Although the sediment-water exchange was of minor importance for the overall mass-balance due to the rapid water turnover and limited areas favourable for the long-term deposition of fine sedimentary matter, sensitivity analyses indicated that the model's predictive capability was improved with about 5% by taking the sediment burial and release into account.
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3.
  • Malmaeus, J. Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating the amount of mobile phosphorus in Baltic coastal soft sediments of central Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Boreal environment research. - 1239-6095. ; 17:6, s. 425-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new dataset based on 102 sediment cores was examined to estimate the amount of phosphorus (P) that will eventually be released to the water column from the Baltic coastal sediments along the Swedish coast between Öregrund and Oxelösund. Total P (P tot) concentration in the surface sediments varied between 840 and 7100 μg g -1 dry weight (dw) with an average of 1650 μg g -1 dw. In deep sediments, the P tot concentration was around 1000 μg g -1 with small variation. The difference between surface concentration and the stable, deeper, concentration represents P to be released, i.e. the mobile P. Pools of mobile P varied between 1.5 and 18.2 g m -2. Correlations between surface P tot concentrations and amounts of mobile P were strong (r 2 = 0.88). We estimate the amount of mobile P in the coastal sediments of the investigated region to be between 1000 and 4000 tonnes. Assuming a turnover time of the mobile P between three and ten years gives an average annual P release of 100-1300 tonnes yr -1.
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4.
  • Abul-Kasim, Kasim, et al. (författare)
  • Increased rod stiffness improves the degree of deformity correction by segmental pedicle screw fixation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scoliosis. - 1748-7161. ; 6, s. 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There are limited reports in literature studying the impact of rod diameter and stiffness on the degree of deformity correction in patients with AIS. AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the 3-dimentional deformity correction achieved by segmental pedicle screw fixation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to find out if learning or the change to stiffer rods had any positive impact on deformity correction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Plain radiographs and low-dose spine CTs of 116 consecutive patients (aged 15.9 ± 2.8 years) operated during the period 2005-2009 (group 1: patients operated autumn 2005-2006; group 2: 2007; group 3: 2008; group 4: 2009) were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the correction of the Cobb angle (P = 0.425) or lower end vertebra tilt (P = 0.298) in patients operated during the first versus the remaining periods of the study. No restoration of the sagittal kyphosis was reported in the first period compared with 5.9° in the last study period (P < 0.001). The correction of vertebral rotation was also improved from 4.2° to 7.8° (P < 0.001) for the same periods. For the whole study population, there was statistically significant correlation between the order of the operation (patient number) and the restoration of sagittal kyphosis (r = -0.344, P = 0.001), and the correction of vertebral rotation (r = 0.370, P < 0.001), but not for the Cobb angle or LEVT. However, there was no significant difference in restoration of sagittal kyphosis and the vertebral rotation in the first 17 patients compared with the last 17 patients operated with rods of 5.5 mm diameter (P = 0.621, and 0.941, respectively), indicating that rod stiffness had more impact on the deformity correction than did learning. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that rod stiffness had more impact on the deformity correction than did learning.
5.
  • Abul-Kasim, Kasim, et al. (författare)
  • Tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic scoliosis: does it play a role in the pathogenesis and prognosis or is it only an incidental finding?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scoliosis. - 1748-7161. ; 4:Nov 12, s. 25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing controversy about the significance of tonsillar ectopia among patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). AIM: To find out if tonsillar ectopia occurs more frequently among patients with IS and if it plays any etiological or prognostic role in IS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 155 consecutive spine MRIs (79 patients with IS and 76 controls; aged 7-25 years; 55% were female) with regard to the position of the cerebellar tonsils in relation to foramen magnum and the sagittal diameter of foramen magnum. All images were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability analysis was performed by calculation of kappa-value, intraclass correlation coefficient, and systematic and random errors. The occurrence of tonsillar ectopia among patients with IS and controls was estimated and the association of tonsillar ectopia with different predictors has been tested. Statistical significance was set to P </= 0.05. RESULTS: The interobserver and intraobserver agreement with regard to the occurrence of tonsillar ectopia was almost perfect (kappa 0.84 and 0.89, respectively). Tonsillar ectopia was found in 37% of patients with IS compared with 13% among controls (p < 0.001 and odds ratio of 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.5). The occurrence of tonsillar ectopia was not associated with the severity of scoliotic deformity (p = 0.85), or rapid progression of scoliosis (p = 0.76). Neurological deficit occurs twice as frequently in patients with tonsillar ectopia as in those with no tonsillar ectopia. Two of five patients with tonsillar ectopia showed improvement of their neurological deficit after the surgical correction of scoliosis. CONCLUSION: As tonsillar ectopia is significantly more frequent among patients with IS and may exhibit some prognostic utility in patients with neurological deficit, we forward the hypothesis that tonsillar ectopia may play a role in the development of the deformity in some patients with IS. However, occurrence of tonsillar ectopia among 13% of controls precludes stating a definitive role of tonsillar ectopia in the pathogenesis of IS. Some patients with IS, tonsillar ectopia and neurological deficit showed neurological improvement following the surgical correction of scoliosis.
6.
  • Adomas, Aleksandra, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative analysis of transcript abundance in Pinus sylvestris after challenge with a saprotrophic, pathogenic or mutualistic fungus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tree Physiology. - 0829-318X. ; 28:6, s. 885-897
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate functional differences in the recognition and response mechanisms of conifer roots to fungi with different trophic strategies, Pinus sylvestris L. was challenged with a saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma aureoviride Rifai. The results were compared with separate studies investigating pine interactions with a pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto and an ectomycorrhizal symbiont, Laccaria bicolor Maire (Orton). Global changes in the expression of 2109 conifer genes were assayed 1, 5 and 15 days after inoculation. Gene expression data from a cDNA microarray were analyzed by the 2-interconnected mixed linear model statistical approach. The total number of genes differentially expressed compared with the uninfected control was similar after challenge with the pathogen and the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, but the number of differentially expressed genes increased over time, for H. annosum, and decreased for L. bicolor. Inoculation of pine roots with T aureoviride resulted overall in a much lower number of genes with changed transcript levels compared with inoculation with H. annosum or L. bicolor. Functional classification of the differentially expressed genes revealed that the ectomycorrhizal fungus triggered transient induction of defence-related genes. The response and induction of defence against the pathogen was delayed and the magnitude increased over time. Thus, there were specific transcriptional responses depending on whether the conifer roots were challenged with mutualistic, saprotrophic or pathogenic fungi. This suggests that pine trees are able to recognize diverse fungal species and specifically distinguish whether they are pathogenic, neutral or beneficial microbial agents.
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10.
  • Agrell, Erik, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Satellite constellations: Towards the nonlinear channel capacity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: 25th IEEE Photonics Conference, IPC 2012, Burlingame, 23 - 27 September 2012 [Invited]. - 978-145770731-5 ; s. 316-317
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a family of adaptive constellations that, in a nonlinear optical fiber channel model, has a mutual information (modulation-constrained capacity) that does not decrease with signal power.
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