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1.
  • Kalkan, Almina, et al. (författare)
  • Increased healthcare utilization costs following initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes A long-term follow-up in clinical practice
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Primary Care Diabetes. - Elsevier. - 1751-9918 .- 1878-0210. ; 11:2, s. 184-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To compare long-term changes in healthcare utilization and costs for type 2 diabetes patients before and after insulin initiation, as well as healthcare costs after insulin versus non-insulin anti-diabetic (NIAD) initiation. Methods: Patients newly initiated on insulin (n = 2823) were identified in primary health care records from 84 Swedish primary care centers, between 1999 to 2009. First, healthcare costs per patient were evaluated for primary care, hospitalizations and secondary outpatient care, before and up to seven years after insulin initiation. Second, patients prescribed insulin in second line were matched to patients prescribed NIAD in second line, and the healthcare costs of the matched groups were compared. Results: The total mean annual healthcare cost increased from 1656 per patient 2 years before insulin initiation to 3814 seven years after insulin initiation. The total cumulative mean healthcare cost per patient at year 5 after second-line treatment was 13,823 in the insulin group compared to 9989 in the NIAD group. Conclusions: Initiation of insulin in type 2 diabetes patients was followed by increased healthcare costs. The increases in costs were larger than those seen in a matched patient population initiated on NIAD treatment in second-line. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
2.
  • Choong, Ferdinand X., et al. (författare)
  • Nondestructive, real-time determination and visualization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin by luminescent oligothiophenes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Enabling technologies for efficient use of the bio-based feedstock are crucial to the replacement of oil-based products. We investigated the feasibility of luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) for non-destructive, rapid detection and quality assessment of lignocellulosic components in complex biomass matrices. A cationic pentameric oligothiophene denoted p-HTEA (pentamer hydrogen thiophene ethyl amine) showed unique binding affinities to cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose nanofibrils in crystal, liquid and paper form. We exploited this finding using spectrofluorometric methods and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, for sensitive, simultaneous determination of the structural and compositional complexities of native lignocellulosic biomass. With exceptional photostability, p-HTEA is also demonstrated as a dynamic sensor for real-time monitoring of enzymatic cellulose degradation in cellulolysis. These results demonstrate the use of p-HTEA as a non-destructive tool for the determination of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in complex biomass matrices, thereby aiding in the optimization of biomass-converting technologies.
3.
  • Elgland, Mathias, et al. (författare)
  • beta-Configured clickable [F-18] FDGs as novel F-18-fluoroglycosylation tools for PET
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New Journal of Chemistry. - ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY. - 1144-0546. ; 41:18, s. 10231-10236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In oncology and neurology the F-18-radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose ([F-18]FDG) is by far the most commonly employed metabolic imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report a novel synthetic route to beta-configured mannopyranoside precursors and a chemoselective F-18-fluoroglycosylation method that employ two b-configured [F-18]FDG derivatives equipped with either a terminal azide or alkyne aglycon respectively, for use as a CuAAC clickable tool set for PET. The b-configured precursors provided the corresponding [F-18]FDGs in a radiochemical yield of 77-88%. Further, the clickability of these [F-18]FDGs was investigated by click coupling to the suitably functionalized Fmoc-protected amino acids, Fmoc-N-(propargyl)-glycine and Fmoc-3-azido-L-alanine, which provided the F-18-fluoroglycosylated amino acid conjugates in radiochemical yields of 75-83%. The F-18-fluoroglycosylated amino acids presented herein constitute a new and interesting class of metabolic PET radiotracers.
4.
  • Göransson, Anna-Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Dissecting the Aggregation Events of Alzheimer’s disease Associated Aβ peptide Variants by the Combined use of Different Fluorescent Probes
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The formation of soluble prefibrillar oligomeric species of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) has been implicated as a causative agent in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is therefore important to characterize the properties of these aggregates, which precede the formation of amyloid fibrils. We studied the in vitro aggregation process of two Aβ40 peptide variants through the combined use of four different fluorescent probes and transmission electron microscopy. Previous studies have shown that these two studied Aβ40 variants exhibit different levels of neurodegeneration when expressed in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, we demonstrate distinct differences in aggregate morphology and their binding properties to different fluorescent probes during in vitro fibrillation of these Aβ peptides. Our results indicate a potential link between the observed neurodegenerative properties and the biophysical properties of distinct aggregated Aβ species.
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5.
  • Lord, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Observations in APP Bitransgenic Mice Suggest thatDiffuse and Compact Plaques Form via IndependentProcesses in Alzheimer’s Disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - Elsevier. - 0002-9440. ; 178:5, s. 2286-2298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of familial Alzheimer's disease suggest that misfolding and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides initiate the pathogenesis. The Arctic mutation of Aβ precursor protein (APP) results in AD, and Arctic Aβ is more prone to form Aβ protofibrils and extracellular deposits. Herein is demonstrated that the burden of diffuse Aβ deposits but not compact plaques is increased when tg-Swe mice are crossed with tg-ArcSwe mice synthesizing low levels of Arctic Aβ. The diffuse deposits in bitransgenic mice, which contain primarily wild-type Aβ42, accumulate in regions both with and without transgene expression. However, APP processing, when compared with tg-Swe, remains unchanged in young bitransgenic mice, whereas wild-type Aβ42 aggregation is accelerated and fibril architecture is altered in vitro and in vivo when a low level of Arctic Aβ42 is introduced. Thus, the increased number of diffuse deposits is likely due to physical interactions between Arctic Aβ and wild-type Aβ42. The selective increase of a single type of parenchymal Aβ deposit suggests that different pathways lead to formation of diffuse and compact plaques. These findings could have general implications for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and particular relevance to patients heterozygous for the Arctic APP mutation. Moreover, it further illustrates how Aβ neuropathologic features can be manipulated in vivo by mechanisms similar to those originally conceptualized in prion research.
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6.
  • Nilsson, K. Peter R., et al. (författare)
  • Imaging distinct conformational states of amyloid-β fibrils in Alzheimer's disease using novel luminescent probes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: ACS Chemical Biology. - 1554-8929. ; 2:8, s. 553-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using luminescent conjugated polyelectrolyte probes (LCPs), we demonstrate the possibility to distinguish amyloid-β 1-42 peptide (Aβ1-42) fibril conformations, by analyzing in vitro generated amyloid fibrils of Aβ1-42 formed under quiescent and agitated conditions. LCPs were then shown to resolve such conformational heterogeneity of amyloid deposits in vivo. A diversity of amyloid deposits depending upon morphology and anatomic location was illustrated with LCPs in frozen ex vivo brain sections from a transgenic mouse model (tg-APPswe) of Alzheimer's disease. Comparative LCP fluorescence showed that compact-core plaques of amyloid β precursor protein transgenic mice were composed of rigid dense amyloid. A more abundant form of amyloid plaque displayed morphology of a compact center with a protruding diffuse exterior. Surprisingly, the compact center of these plaques showed disordered conformations of the fibrils, and the exterior was composed of rigid amyloid protruding from the disordered center. This type of plaque appears to grow from more loosely assembled regions toward solidified amyloid tentacles. This work demonstrates how application of LCPs can prove helpful to monitor aggregate structure of in vivo formed amyloid deposits such as architecture, maturity, and origin.
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7.
  • Nilsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of smoking cessation on insulin and cardiovascular risk factors--a controlled study of 4 months' duration
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine1989-01-01+01:00. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 240:4, s. 189-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects on serum lipids, plasma fibrinogen, plasma insulin, plasma C-peptide and blood glucose, of smoking cessation after 4 months. To develop a group-based smoking intervention programme in primary health care. SETTING: Twenty health centres in primary health care in southern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Four hundred habitual smokers (> 10 cigarettes per day-1, > 10 years), recruited by advertisement in local papers. INTERVENTION: The smokers were randomized, after stratification for age and sex, to one intervention group (n = 200) and one control group (n = 200). The intervention group was offered supportive group sessions and free nicotine supplementation (patches, chewing gum). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants were investigated at the start and after 4 months (medical history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation). Blood samples were drawn for determination of glucose, insulin and C-peptide, both in the fasting state and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and for measurement of lipoproteins, fibrinogen, nicotine and cotinine. RESULTS: In the intervention group 98 of the subjects (48%) had quit smoking after 4 months. They were compared with the 156 subjects in the control group (91%) who were still daily smokers during the whole period. There were no significant differences in any variable between the two (total) experimental groups at baseline. Plasma nicotine and cotinine decreased (P < 0.001) in the intervention group following smoking cessation, and weight increased by 2.7 kg. In the intervention group HDL-cholesterol increased by 11% (P < 0.001), whereas HbA1c increased by 2% (P < 0.05) only in the control group. No changes occurred in levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: The smoking cessation programme had a success rate of almost 50% over 4 months. Smoking cessation was associated with a marked increase in HDL-cholesterol levels but did not affect glucose tolerance. A concomitant weight increase may have blunted any independent beneficial effect of smoking cessation on glucose metabolism.
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8.
  • Philipson, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • A highly insoluble state of Abeta similar to that of Alzheimer's disease brain is found in Arctic APP transgenic mice.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of aging. - 1558-1497. ; 30:9, s. 1393-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-beta (Abeta) is a major drug target in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we demonstrate that deposited Abeta is SDS insoluble in tgAPP-ArcSwe, a transgenic mouse model harboring the Arctic (E693G) and Swedish (KM670/671NL) APP mutations. Formic acid was needed to extract the majority of deposited Abeta in both tgAPP-ArcSwe and Alzheimer's disease brain, but not in a commonly used type of mouse model with the Swedish mutation alone. Interestingly, the insoluble state of Arctic Abeta was determined early on and did not gradually evolve with time. In tgAPP-ArcSwe, Abeta plaques displayed a patchy morphology with bundles of Abeta fibrils, whereas amyloid cores in tgAPP-Swe were circular with radiating fibrils. Amyloid was more densely stacked in tgAPP-ArcSwe, as demonstrated with a conformation sensitive probe. A reduced increase in plasma Abeta was observed following acute administration of an Abeta antibody in tgAPP-ArcSwe, results that might imply reduced brain to plasma Abeta efflux. TgAPP-ArcSwe, with its insoluble state of deposited Abeta, could serve as a complementary model to better predict the outcome of clinical trials.
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9.
  • Rasmussen, Jay, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid polymorphisms constitute distinct clouds of conformational variants in different etiological subtypes of Alzheimers disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424. ; 114:49, s. 13018-13023
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The molecular architecture of amyloids formed in vivo can be interrogated using luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), a unique class of amyloid dyes. When bound to amyloid, LCOs yield fluorescence emission spectra that reflect the 3D structure of the protein aggregates. Given that synthetic amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) has been shown to adopt distinct structural conformations with different biological activities, we asked whether A beta can assume structurally and functionally distinct conformations within the brain. To this end, we analyzed the LCO-stained cores of beta-amyloid plaques in postmortem tissue sections from frontal, temporal, and occipital neocortices in 40 cases of familial Alzheimers disease (AD) or sporadic (idiopathic) AD (sAD). The spectral attributes of LCO-bound plaques varied markedly in the brain, but the mean spectral properties of the amyloid cores were generally similar in all three cortical regions of individual patients. Remarkably, the LCO amyloid spectra differed significantly among some of the familial and sAD subtypes, and between typical patients with sAD and those with posterior cortical atrophy AD. Neither the amount of A beta nor its protease resistance correlated with LCO spectral properties. LCO spectral amyloid phenotypes could be partially conveyed to A beta plaques induced by experimental transmission in a mouse model. These findings indicate that polymorphic A beta-amyloid deposits within the brain cluster as clouds of conformational variants in different AD cases. Heterogeneity in the molecular architecture of pathogenic A beta among individuals and in etiologically distinct subtypes of AD justifies further studies to assess putative links between A beta conformation and clinical phenotype.
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10.
  • Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang, et al. (författare)
  • Drosophila Melanogaster as a Model System for Studies of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Aggregation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 6:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent research supports that aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) leads to cell death and this makes islet amyloid a plausible cause for the reduction of beta cell mass, demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes. IAPP is produced by the beta cells as a prohormone, and proIAPP is processed into IAPP by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 in the secretory granules. Little is known about the pathogenesis for islet amyloid and which intracellular mechanisms are involved in amyloidogenesis and induction of cell death.Methodology/Principal Findings: We have established expression of human proIAPP (hproIAPP), human IAPP (hIAPP) and the non-amyloidogenic mouse IAPP (mIAPP) in Drosophila melanogaster, and compared survival of flies with the expression driven to different cell populations. Only flies expressing hproIAPP in neurons driven by the Gal4 driver elavC(155,Gal4) showed a reduction in lifespan whereas neither expression of hIAPP or mIAPP influenced survival. Both hIAPP and hproIAPP expression caused formation of aggregates in CNS and fat body region, and these aggregates were both stained by the dyes Congo red and pFTAA, both known to detect amyloid. Also, the morphology of the highly organized protein granules that developed in the fat body of the head in hIAPP and hproIAPP expressing flies was characterized, and determined to consist of 15.8 nm thick pentagonal rod-like structures.Conclusions/Significance: These findings point to a potential for Drosophila melanogaster to serve as a model system for studies of hproIAPP and hIAPP expression with subsequent aggregation and developed pathology.
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