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  • Resultat 1-10 av 1889
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  • Aad, Georges, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the transverse momentum distribution of W bosons in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 85:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes a measurement of the W boson transverse momentum distribution using ATLAS pp collision data from the 2010 run of the LHC at root s = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 31 pb(-1). Events form both W -> e nu and W -> mu nu are used, and the transverse momentum of the W candidates is measured through the energy deposition in the calorimeter from the recoil of the W. The resulting distributions are unfolded to obtain the normalized differential cross sections as a function of the W boson transverse momentum. We present results for p(T)(W) < 300 GeV in the electron and muon channels as well as for their combination, and compare the combined results to the predictions of perturbative QCD and a selection of event generators.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Direct limits on the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007. ; 97:2, s. 021802
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report results of a study of the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency using a large sample of B(s)(0) semileptonic decays corresponding to approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in 2002-2006. The amplitude method gives a lower limit on the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency at 14.8 ps(-1) at the 95% C.L. At Delta m(s)=19 ps(-1), the amplitude deviates from the hypothesis A=0 (1) by 2.5 (1.6) standard deviations, corresponding to a two-sided C.L. of 1% (10%). A likelihood scan over the oscillation frequency, Delta m(s), gives a most probable value of 19 ps(-1) and a range of 17 &lt;Delta m(s)&lt; 21 ps(-1) at the 90% C.L., assuming Gaussian uncertainties. This is the first direct two-sided bound measured by a single experiment. If Delta m(s) lies above 22 ps(-1), then the probability that it would produce a likelihood minimum similar to the one observed in the interval 16-22 ps(-1) is (5.0 +/- 0.3)%.
  • Abdo, A.A, et al. (författare)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 709:2, s. l152-L157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8 sigma and 4.8 sigma, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with gamma-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.
  • Abdo, A.A, et al. (författare)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 710:2, s. 1271-1285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gamma-ray energy spectra of bright blazars of the LAT Bright AGN Sample LBAS) are investigated using Fermi-LAT data. Spectral properties hardness, curvature, and variability) established using a data set accumulated over 6 months of operation are presented and discussed for different blazar classes and subclasses: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), low-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (LSP-BLLacs), intermediate-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (ISP-BLLacs), and high-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (HSP-BLLacs). The distribution of photon index G, obtained from a power-law fit above 100 MeV) is found to correlate strongly with blazar subclass. The change in spectral index from that averaged over the 6 months observing period is &lt; 0.2-0.3 when the flux varies by about an order of magnitude, with a tendency toward harder spectra when the flux is brighter for FSRQs and LSP-BLLacs. A strong departure from a single power-law spectrum appears to be a common feature for FSRQs. This feature is also present for some high-luminosity LSP-BLLacs, and a small number of ISP-BLLacs. It is absent in all LBAS HSP-BLLacs. For 3C 454.3 and AO 0235+164, the two brightest FSRQ source and LSP-BLLac source, respectively, a broken power law (BPL) gives the most acceptable of power law, BPL, and curved forms. The consequences of these findings are discussed.
  • Abdo, A.A, et al. (författare)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 730:2, s. 101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsahovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BL Lac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.
  • AMANDA Collaboration, et al. (författare)
  • Limits to the Muon Flux from Neutralino Annihilations in the Sun with the AMANDA Detector
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle Physics. ; 24, s. 459-466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • A search for an excess of muon-neutrinos from neutralino annihilations in the Sun has been performed with the AMANDA-II neutrino detector using data collected in 143.7 days of live-time in 2001. No excess over the expected atmospheric neutrino background has been observed. An upper limit at 90% confidence level has been obtained on the annihilation rate of captured neutralinos in the Sun, as well as the corresponding muon flux limit at the Earth, both as functions of the neutralino mass in the range 100-5000 GeV. 
  • AMANDA Collaboration, et al. (författare)
  • The IceCube Prototype String in AMANDA
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods. ; A566, s. 169-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high-energy neutrino telescope. It is a lattice of optical modules (OM) installed in the clear ice below the South Pole Station. Each OM contains a photomultiplier tube (PMT) that detects photons of Cherenkov light generated in the ice by muons and electrons. ICECUBE is a cubic-kilometer-sized expansion of AMANDA currently being built at the South Pole. In ICECUBE the PMT signals are digitized already in the optical modules and transmitted to the surface. A prototype string of 41 OMs equipped with this new all-digital technology was deployed in the AMANDA array in the year 2000. In this paper we describe the technology and demonstrate that this string serves as a proof of concept for the ICECUBE array. Our investigations show that the OM timing accuracy is 5 ns. Atmospheric muons are detected in excellent agreement with expectations with respect to both angular distribution and absolute rate. 
  • Garavini, Gabriele, et al. (författare)
  • Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Peculiar SN 1999aa
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - The American Astronomical Society.. - 0004-6256. ; 128, s. 387-404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an extensive new time series of spectroscopic data of the peculiar SN 1999aa in NGC 2595. Ourdata set includes 25 optical spectra between 11 and +58 days with respect to B-band maximum light, providingan unusually complete time history. The early spectra resemble those of an SN 1991T–like object but with arelatively strong Ca H and K absorption feature. The first clear sign of Si ii k6355, characteristic of Type Iasupernovae, is found at day 7, and its velocity remains constant up to at least the first month after B-bandmaximum light. The transition to normal-looking spectra is found to occur earlier than in SN 1991T, suggestingSN 1999aa as a possible link between SN 1991T–like and Branch-normal supernovae. Comparing the observationswith synthetic spectra, doubly ionized Fe, Si, and Ni are identified at early epochs. These are characteristicof SN 1991T–like objects. Furthermore, in the day 11 spectrum, evidence is found for an absorptionfeature that could be identified as high velocity C ii k6580 or H. At the same epoch C iii k4648.8 at photosphericvelocity is probably responsible for the absorption feature at 4500 8. High-velocity Ca is found aroundmaximum light together with Si ii and Fe ii confined in a narrow velocity window. Implied constraints onsupernovae progenitor systems and explosion hydrodynamic models are briefly discussed.
  • Heinze, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Cellulose Carbonates: A Platform for Promising Biopolymer Derivatives with Multifunctional Capabilities
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In addition to cellulose tosylates (Heinze et al 2016), cellulose carbonates represent a new type of platform compounds that open new possibilities for the design of advanced materials based on the most important renewable resource cellulose. In addition, the synthesis concept can be used for polysaccharides in general that could be proofed for starch and dextran carbonates. In the presentation, the efficient preparation of well-soluble cellulose carbonates is discussed based on own research program about organo-soluble and reactive polysaccharide derivatives. Homogeneous procedures are most efficient applying typical cellulose solvents including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl and ionic liquids (IL) in combination with organic solvents like pyridine. Even products with complete functionalization of all hydroxyl groups are available (degree of substitution, DS 3). The cellulose carbonates are commercially available from a start-up company and are well suitable for homogeneous conversion with nucleophilic compounds in particular with amines. They are easily soluble in organic solvents; thus, the time-consuming and tricky dissolution of cellulose in complex solvents can be omitted. The synthesis and aminolysis of cellulose carbonates with low, intermediate, and high DS and the evaluation of this chemistry with respect to specific challenges will be exemplarily discussed. Functional cellulose carbamates, obtained from cellulose phenyl carbonate by aminolysis, show the potential use of this class of celluloses. Immunoassays, zwitterionic polymers, products for laundry applications are included as representative examples regarding properties and application of the new cellulose-based products (Elschner and Heinze 2015) 
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