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Sökning: db:Swepub > (2010-2011) > Umeå universitet

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1.
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2.
  • Aalberg, Carmen, et al. (författare)
  • Governance patterns and performance of regional strategies in peri-urban areas : comparative analysis of seven cases in Europe and Chine
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report examines how different regional and local governance patterns and specific spatial planning strategies impact on peri-urban land use in Rural Urban regions. It draws from seven regional case studies, presenting a diverse mix of strategies ranging from protecting biodiversity and agricultural land, creating recreation and tourism opportunities to reducing pressure from building and infrastructure development. To study the means of influence or power an analytical framework of ‘policy arrangement’ was employed (Tatenhove et al, 2000): specifying rules of the game, resources, coalitions and discourses. Both government and nongovernment actors such as environmental groups or developers can form coalitions, adopt rules, employ resources and develop discourses to influence policies and developments in urban regions. The analytical and assessment frameworks defined by regional researchers and practitioners helped to organize the case study data and to evaluate both processes and outcomes of governance in peri-urban areas. The outcomes are represented in a summarized way for each strategy and region.The report provides examples of unsustainable developments in peri-urban regions and how certain strategies helped to counteract these, and emphasizes the importance of recognizing peri-urban areas as a policy field in its own right.A sustainable spread of land use over the Rural Urban region requires regional authorities whose jurisdiction covers the Rural Urban region and who have the appropriate mix of policy means of influence and relative power over lower level authorities. Under the current predominant discourse of ‘sustainable’ development largely being equal to economic development, the outcome of sustainability concerns depends on urban areas taking financial responsibility for the inclusion of common good interests such as ecosystem services, cultural heritage and social and environmental justice into the periurban areas. Recommendations for policy makers at different levels conclude the report.
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3.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Hälsoresan till medelåldern
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning : Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning. - Centrum för idrottsforskning. - 1103-4629. ; :2, s. 40-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Vad är viktigast för att få en god hälsa som vuxen? Sedan 1974 har vi följt samma personer från 16 års ålder in i medelåldern och studerat deras hälsa från flera olika synvinklar. Nu pågår den tredje mätomgången.
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4.
  • Aasa, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of object size and precision demands on fatigue during computer mouse use
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Advances in Physiotherapy. - 1403-8196. ; 13:3, s. 118-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prolonged computer use, especially if fatigue ensues, is associated with visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim was to determine the time-course of perceived fatigue in the wrist, forearm, shoulder and eyes during a 60-min mouse task (painting rectangles), and whether object size and/or mouse use demands were of influence. Also, we investigated performance (number of rectangles painted), and whether perceived fatigue was paralleled by local muscle fatigue or tissue oxygenation. Ten women performed the task for three conditions (crossover design). At condition 1, rectangles were 45 × 25 mm, square paint cursor size 1.3 × 1.3 mm, and mousepointer movement ratio 1:26. At condition 2, the same cursor size and mousepointer movement ratio was used, but rectangles were smaller. At condition 3, the smaller rectangles were used, but the cursor size was also smaller and mousepointer movement ratio was 1:8. The results showed increased self-reported fatigue over time, with the observed increase greater for the eyes, but no change in physiological responses. Condition 2 resulted in higher performance and increased eye fatigue. Perceived fatigue in the muscles or physiological responses did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, computer work tasks imposing high visual and motor demands, and with high performance, seemed to have an influence on eye fatigue. 
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5.
  • Abalaka, J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Rock Firefinch Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis in the Mandara Mountains, north-east Nigeria : a new subspecies?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: African Bird Club Bulletin. - 1352-481X. ; 17:2, s. 210-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • L’Amarante des rochers Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis dans les Monts Mandara, Nigeria du sud-est: une nouvelle sous-espèce ? Nous fournissons une description d’un mâle et d’une femelle, ainsi que desphotos d’un mâle, d’un amarante capturé dans les Monts Mandara, au nord-est du Nigeria. Le plumage et le cri de cet amarante sont identiques à ceux de l’Amarante des rochers Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis, une espèce précédemment rapportée de la zone, excepté que le mâle n’a pas la couronne grise typique de l’espèce. Des travaux supplémentaires sur le terrain sont nécessaires pour déterminer s’il agit d’un individu aberrant ou d’une population de l’Amarante des rochers morphologiquement distincte.
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6.
  • Abdoullaye, Doukary, et al. (författare)
  • Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 August 2009 - 30 September 2009
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources. - 1755-098X. ; 10:1, s. 232-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides.
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7.
  • Abdul Kader, Hale, et al. (författare)
  • The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–39
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Business History. - Taylor & Francis Group. - 0007-6791. ; 52:2, s. 268-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.
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8.
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9.
  • Abedan Kondori, Farid, et al. (författare)
  • Smart Baggage in Aviation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 2011 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things, and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing. - Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society. - 978-1-4577-1976-9 ; s. 620-623
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nowadays, the Internet has dramatically changed the way people take the normal course of actions. By the recent growth of the Internet, connecting different objects to users through mobile phones and computers is no longer a dream. Aviation industry is one of the areas which have a strong potential to benefit from the Internet of Things. Among many problems related to air travel, delayed and lost luggage are the most common and irritating. Therefore, this paper suggests anew baggage control system, where users can simply track their baggage at the airport to avoid losing them. Attaching a particular pattern on the bag, which can be detected and localized from long distance by an ordinary camera, users are able to track their baggage. The proposed system is much cheaper than previous implementations and does not require sophisticated equipment.
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10.
  • Aberg, A, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure assessment at a PCDD/F contaminated site in Sweden : field measurements of exposure media and serum analysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international. - Berlin / Heidelberg : Springer. - 0944-1344. ; 17:1, s. 26-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: The main pathway for human exposure to the highly toxic polychlorinated-p-dioxins and polychlorinated furans [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)] is via dietary intake. Other exposure pathways may, however, be important in close proximity to point sources, such as wood preservation sites, where PCDD/F contaminated chlorophenols (CP) were previously used. In this study, a heavily PCDD/F contaminated CP saw mill site in Sweden was investigated. Human exposure through a broad spectrum of exposure pathways was assessed. Such studies are in demand since the question whether contaminated sites represent a current or future risk can only be answered by detailed site-specific risk assessments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sampling of exposure media (soil, air, groundwater, raspberries, carrots, potatoes, grass, milk, eggs, and chicken fodder) was made. Exposure media concentrations and congener distribution patterns were used to investigate the mobilization of PCDD/Fs from soil to the environment and to calculate exposure levels for adults. Blood serum levels from site-exposed and control individuals were also analyzed. RESULTS: Congener distribution patterns at the site were generally dominated by a specific marker congener (1234678-HpCDF), which is highly abundant in the polluted soil. The dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) concentrations were notably elevated as compared to national reference samples for most exposure media, and the marker congener was a major contributor to increased TEQ levels. There were also indications of soil-to-air volatilization of tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs. People who participated in the restoration of a contaminated building showed higher levels of 1234678-HpCDF compared to controls, and calculated exposure levels suggest that several site-specific exposure routes may be of importance for the daily intake of PCDD/F. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND PERSPECTIVES: Despite low mobility of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, these contaminants were transferred from the polluted soil to the surroundings and into human tissue. The extent of increased exposure from contaminated sites depends on the PCDD/F source strength of the soil, composition of the pollution, human activities, and dietary patterns of the residents. Impact from the contaminated soil on other exposure media was seen also for areas with low to moderate soil contamination. In the future, not only the levels of PCDD/F soil pollution but also the composition must be considered in risk assessments of contaminated sites.
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