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Sökning: db:Swepub > (2010-2011) > Johannesson G.

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1.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • A change in the optical polarization associated with a gamma-ray flare in the blazar 3C 279
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 463:7283, s. 919-923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is widely accepted that strong and variable radiation detected over all accessible energy bands in a number of active galaxies arises from a relativistic, Doppler-boosted jet pointing close to our line of sight(1). The size of the emitting zone and the location of this region relative to the central supermassive black hole are, however, poorly known, with estimates ranging from light-hours to a light-year or more. Here we report the coincidence of a gamma (gamma)-ray flare with a dramatic change of optical polarization angle. This provides evidence for co-spatiality of optical and gamma-ray emission regions and indicates a highly ordered jet magnetic field. The results also require a non-axisymmetric structure of the emission zone, implying a curved trajectory for the emitting material within the jet, with the dissipation region located at a considerable distance from the black hole, at about 10(5) gravitational radii.
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2.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • A population of gamma-ray emitting globular clusters seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361. ; 524, s. A75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Globular clusters with their large populations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are believed to be potential emitters of high-energy gamma-ray emission. The observation of this emission provides a powerful tool to assess the millisecond pulsar population of a cluster, is essential for understanding the importance of binary systems for the evolution of globular clusters, and provides complementary insights into magnetospheric emission processes. Aims. Our goal is to constrain the millisecond pulsar populations in globular clusters from analysis of gamma-ray observations. Methods. We use 546 days of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to study the gamma-ray emission towards 13 globular clusters. Results. Steady point-like high-energy gamma-ray emission has been significantly detected towards 8 globular clusters. Five of them (47 Tucanae, Omega Cen, NGC 6388, Terzan 5, and M 28) show hard spectral power indices (0.7 < Gamma < 1.4) and clear evidence for an exponential cut-off in the range 1.0-2.6 GeV, which is the characteristic signature of magnetospheric emission from MSPs. Three of them (M 62, NGC 6440 and NGC 6652) also show hard spectral indices (1.0 < Gamma < 1.7), however the presence of an exponential cut-off can not be unambiguously established. Three of them (Omega Cen, NGC 6388, NGC 6652) have no known radio or X-ray MSPs yet still exhibit MSP spectral properties. From the observed gamma-ray luminosities, we estimate the total number of MSPs that is expected to be present in these globular clusters. We show that our estimates of the MSP population correlate with the stellar encounter rate and we estimate 2600-4700 MSPs in Galactic globular clusters, commensurate with previous estimates. Conclusions. The observation of high-energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters thus provides a reliable independent method to assess their millisecond pulsar populations.
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3.
  • Abdo, A.A, et al. (författare)
  • DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 709:2, s. l152-L157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8 sigma and 4.8 sigma, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with gamma-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.
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4.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • DETECTION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION DURING THE X-RAY FLARING ACTIVITY IN GRB 100728A
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 734:2, s. L27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. We discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activity as their power source.
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5.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of the energetic pulsar PSR B1509-58 and its pulsar wind nebula in MSH 15-52 using the Fermi-large area telescope
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 714:1, s. 927-936
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the young and energetic pulsar PSR B1509-58 and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the composite supernova remnant G320.4-1.2 (aka MSH 15-52). Using 1 yr of survey data with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT), we detected pulsations from PSR B1509-58 up to 1 GeV and extended gamma-ray emission above 1 GeV spatially coincident with the PWN. The pulsar light curve presents two peaks offset from the radio peak by phases 0.96 +/- 0.01 and 0.33 +/- 0.02. New constraining upper limits on the pulsar emission are derived below 1 GeV and confirm a severe spectral break at a few tens of MeV. The nebular spectrum in the 1-100 GeV energy range is well described by a power law with a spectral index of (1.57 +/- 0.17 +/- 0.13) and a flux above 1 GeV of (2.91 +/- 0.79 +/- 1.35) x 10(-9) cm(-2) s(-1). The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. The LAT spectrum of the nebula connects nicely with Cherenkov observations, and indicates a spectral break between GeV and TeV energies.
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6.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of the Small Magellanic Cloud in gamma-rays with Fermi/LAT
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361. ; 523, s. A46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The flux of gamma rays with energies greater than 100 MeV is dominated by diffuse emission coming from cosmic-rays (CRs) illuminating the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy through the processes of Bremsstrahlung, pion production and decay, and inverse-Compton scattering. The study of this diffuse emission provides insight into the origin and transport of cosmic rays. Aims. We searched for gamma-ray emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in order to derive constraints on the cosmic-ray population and transport in an external system with properties different from the Milky Way. Methods. We analysed the first 17 months of continuous all-sky observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi mission to determine the spatial distribution, flux and spectrum of the gamma-ray emission from the SMC. We also used past radio synchrotron observations of the SMC to study the population of CR electrons specifically. Results. We obtained the first detection of the SMC in high-energy gamma rays, with an integrated >100 MeV flux of (3.7 +/- 0.7) x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1), with additional systematic uncertainty of <= 16%. The emission is steady and from an extended source similar to 3 degrees in size. It is not clearly correlated with the distribution of massive stars or neutral gas, nor with known pulsars or supernova remnants, but a certain correlation with supergiant shells is observed. Conclusions. The observed flux implies an upper limit on the average CR nuclei density in the SMC of similar to 15% of the value measured locally in the Milky Way. The population of high-energy pulsars of the SMC may account for a substantial fraction of the gamma-ray flux, which would make the inferred CR nuclei density even lower. The average density of CR electrons derived from radio synchrotron observations is consistent with the same reduction factor but the uncertainties are large. From our current knowledge of the SMC, such a low CR density does not seem to be due to a lower rate of CR injection and rather indicates a smaller CR confinement volume characteristic size.
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7.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AROUND PERIASTRON WITH FERMI
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 736:1, s. L11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the discovery of >= 100 MeV gamma-rays from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to similar to 128 days after the time of periastron, t(p), on 2010 December 15. No gamma-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron. Faint gamma-ray emission appeared as the pulsar approached periastron. At similar to t(p) + 30 days, the >= 100 MeV gamma-ray flux increased over a period of a few days to a peak flux 20-30 times that seen during the pre-periastron period, but with a softer spectrum. For the following month, it was seen to be variable on daily timescales, but remained at similar to(1-4) x 10(-6) cm(-2) s(-1) before starting to fade at similar to t(p) + 57 days. The total gamma-ray luminosity observed during this period is comparable to the spin-down power of the pulsar. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the source showed no corresponding dramatic changes in radio and X-ray flux between the pre-periastron and post-periastron flares. We discuss possible explanations for the observed gamma-ray-only flaring of the source.
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8.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi detection of delayed GeV emission from the short gamma-ray burst 081024B
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 712:1, s. 558-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the detailed analysis of the high-energy extended emission from the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 081024B detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Historically, this represents the first clear detection of temporal extended emission from a short GRB. The light curve observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor lasts approximately 0.8 s whereas the emission in the Fermi Large Area Telescope lasts for about 3 s. Evidence of longer lasting high-energy emission associated with long bursts has been already reported by previous experiments. Our observations, together with the earlier reported study of the bright short GRB 090510, indicate similarities in the high-energy emission of short and long GRBs and open the path to new interpretations.
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9.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Gamma-Ray Imaging of a Radio Galaxy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 328:5979, s. 725-729
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields.
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10.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE GAMMA-RAY OUTBURST FROM 3C454.3 IN NOVEMBER 2010
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 733:2, s. L26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 underwent an extraordinary 5 day gamma-ray outburst in 2010 November when the daily flux measured with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) at photon energies E > 100 MeV reached (66 +/- 2) x 10(-6) photons cm(-2) s(-1). This is a factor of three higher than its previous maximum flux recorded in 2009 December and greater than or similar to 5 times brighter than the Vela pulsar, which is normally the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky. The 3 hr peak flux was (85 +/- 5) x 10(-6) photons cm-2 s(-1), corresponding to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (2.1 +/- 0.2) x10(50) erg s(-1), the highest ever recorded for a blazar. In this Letter, we investigate the features of this exceptional event in the gamma-ray band of the Fermi-LAT. In contrast to previous flares of the same source observed with the Fermi-LAT, clear spectral changes are observed during the flare.
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