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Sökning: db:Swepub > (2010-2011) > Riboli Elio > Bingham Sheila > Boffetta Paolo > Boeing Heiner

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1.
  • Boffetta, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 102:8, s. 529-537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.
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2.
  • Hermann, Silke, et al. (författare)
  • Level of education and the risk of lymphoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. - Springer. - 0171-5216. ; 136:1, s. 71-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lymphomas belong to the few cancer sites with increasing incidence over past decades, and only a few risk factors have been established. We explored the association between education and the incidence of lymphoma in the prospective EPIC study. Within 3,567,410 person-years of follow-up, 1,319 lymphoma cases 1,253 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 66 Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) were identified. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to examine the association between highest educational level (primary school or less, technical/professional school, secondary school, university) and lymphoma risk. Overall, no consistent associations between educational level and lymphoma risk were observed; however, associations were found for sub-groups of the cohort. We observed a higher risk of B-NHL (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.02-1.68; n = 583) in women with the highest education level (university) but not in men. Concerning sub-classes of B-NHL, a positive association between education and risk of B cell chronic lymphatic leukaemia (BCLL) was observed only in women. In both genders, the risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was significantly lower for subjects with university degree (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27-0.79) versus lowest educational level. No association was found for HL. We could not confirm an overall consistent association of education and risk of HL or NHL in this large prospective study; although, education was positively related to the incidence of BCLL and B-NHL (in women) but inversely to incidence of DLBCL. Due to limited number of cases in sub-classes and the large number of comparisons, the possibility of chance findings can not be excluded.
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3.
  • Jakszyn, Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Red Meat, Dietary Nitrosamines, and Heme Iron and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 20:3, s. 555-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds), and the risk of bladder cancer. We investigated the association between red meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence were available for a total of 481,419 participants, recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, lifetime intensity of smoking, duration of smoking, educational level, and BMI. Results: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,001 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. We found no overall association between intake of red meat (log(2) HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99-1.13), nitrosamines (log(2) HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92-1.30 and HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.05 for ENOC and NDMA, respectively) or heme iron (log(2) HR: 1.05; 95 CI: 0.99-1.12) and bladder cancer risk. The associations did not vary by sex, high-versus low-risk bladder cancers, smoking status, or occupation (high vs. low risk). Conclusions: Our findings do not support an effect of red meat intake, nitrosamines (endogenous or exogenous), or heme iron intake on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(3); 555-9. (C)2011 AACR.
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4.
  • Neasham, David, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation and risk of lymphoma:
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711. ; 68:1, s. 77-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Evidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective study. Methods We investigated occupational risks for lymphomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The mean follow-up time for 348 555 subjects was 9 years (SD: 2 years). The analysis was based on 866 and 48 newly diagnosed cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). These were identified in the EPIC subcohorts with occupational data. Data on 52 occupations were collected through standardised questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between occupation and risk of malignant lymphoma. Results The following occupations were positively associated with malignant NHL after adjustment for study centre, age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking and alcohol: butchers (HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.48, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.66, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma) and car repair workers (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.00, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.31, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma). HL was associated with gasoline station occupation (HR=4.59, 95% CI 1.08 to 19.6). Conclusion The findings in this current study of a higher risk of NHL among car repair workers and butchers and a higher risk of HL among gasoline station workers suggest a possible role from occupationally related exposures, such as solvents and zoonotic viruses, as risk factors for malignant lymphoma.
5.
  • Rinaldi, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and colorectal cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort, plus a meta-analysis of prospective studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons Inc. - 0020-7136. ; 126:7, s. 1702-1715
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several prospective studies have shown a moderate positive association between increasing circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and colorectal cancer risk. However, the associations were often statistically nonsignificant, and the relationship of cancer risk with IGF-I's major binding protein, IGFBP-3, showed major discrepancies between studies. We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF-I, total and intact IGFBP-3, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (1,121 cases of colorectal cancer and 1,121 matched controls). Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for possible confounders. Our present study results were combined in a meta-analysis with those from 9 previous prospective studies to examine the overall evidence for a relationship of prediagnostic serum IGF-I with colorectal cancer risk. In the EPIC study, serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 showed no associations with risk of colorectal cancer overall. Only in subgroup analyses did our study show moderate positive associations of IGF-I levels with risk, either among younger participants only (and only for colon cancer) or among participants whose milk intakes were in the lowest tertile of the population distribution (RR for an increase of 100 ng/ml = 1.43 95% CI = 1.13-1.93). Nevertheless, in the meta-analysis a modest positive association remained between serum IGF-I and colorectal cancer risk overall (RR = 1.07 1.01-1.14 for 1 standard deviation increase in IGF-I). Overall, data from our present study and previous prospective studies combined indicate a relatively modest association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF-I.
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6.
  • Vrieling, Alina, et al. (författare)
  • Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - 0020-7136. ; 126:10, s. 2394-2403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, prospective data for most European countries are lacking, and epidemiologic studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in relation to pancreatic cancer risk are scarce. We examined the association of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This analysis was based on 465,910 participants, including 524 first incident pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after a median follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for weight, height, and history of diabetes mellitus. An increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found for current cigarette smokers compared with never smokers (HR = 1.71, 95% Cl = 1.36 2.15), and risk increased with greater intensity and pack-years. Former cigarette smokers who quit for less than 5 years were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.78, 95% Cl = 1.23-2.56), but risk was comparable to never smokers after quitting for 5 years or more. Pancreatic cancer risk was increased among never smokers daily exposed to ETS (for many hours) during childhood (HR = 2.61, 95% Cl = 0.96-7.10) and exposed to ETS at home and/or work (HR = 1.54, 95% Cl = 1.00-2.39). These results suggest that both active cigarette smoking, as well as exposure to ETS, is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that risk is reduced to levels of never smokers within 5 years of quitting.
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