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1.
  • Bjerke, Maria, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases in Combination with Subcortical and Cortical Biomarkers in Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1387-2877. ; 27:3, s. 665-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are intertwined by mixed dementia (MD) harboring varying degrees of AD pathology in combination with cerebrovascular disease. The aim was to assess whether there is a difference in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile, of selected proteins, between patients with VaD and MD with subcortical vascular disease (SVD), AD, and healthy controls that could contribute in the separation of the groups. The study included 30 controls, 26 SVD patients (9 VaD and 17 MD) and 30 AD patients. The protein panel included total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau 181 (P-tau181), amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ1-42), neurofilament light (NF-L), myelin basic protein (MBP), heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -10), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and -2). Immunochemical methods were utilized for quantification of the proteins in CSF and data analysis was performed with a multivariate discriminant algorithm. The concentrations of MBP, TIMP-1, P-tau181, NF-L, T-tau, MMP-9, Aβ1-42, and MMP-2 contributed the most to the separation between SVD and AD, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90% (AUC = 0.92). MBP and NF-L performed the best in discriminating SVD from controls, while T-tau and Aβ1-42 contributed the most in segregating AD from controls. The CSF biomarkers reflecting AD pathology (T-tau, P-tau181, and Aβ1-42), white matter lesions (NF-L and MBP) and matrix remodeling (MMP-9 and TIMP-1) perform well in differentiating between SVD and AD patients.
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2.
  • Eckerström, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Combination of Hippocampal Volume and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Improves Predictive Value in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - 1421-9824. ; 29:4, s. 294-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition, and the prognosis differs within the group. Recent findings suggest that hippocampal volumetry and CSF biomarkers can be used to predict which MCI patients have an underlying neurodegenerative disorder. Objective: To examine the combined predictive value of hippocampal volume and CSF levels of total tau (T-tau) and beta-amyloid(42) (Abeta(42)) in stable and converting MCI patients. The participants (n = 68) included patients with MCI at baseline and who converted to dementia by the time of the 2-year follow-up (n = 21), stable MCI patients (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 26). Methods: The Göteborg MCI study is a clinically based longitudinal study with biannual clinical assessments. Hippocampal volumetry was performed manually, based on data from the 0.5-tesla MRI investigations at baseline. Baseline CSF levels of T-tau and Abeta(42) were measured using commercially available, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The converting MCI group had significantly smaller left hippocampi, lower CSF Abeta(42) and higher T-tau compared to both the stable MCI group and the healthy controls. Multivariate analysis revealed that a combination of the variables outperformed the prognostic ability of the separate variables. Conclusions: Hippocampal volumes supplement the prognostic accuracy of CSF Abeta(42) and T-tau in MCI.
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3.
  • Jonsson, Michael, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of white matter lesions - cross-sectional results from the LADIS study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European journal of neurology. - 1468-1331. ; 17:3, s. 377-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: White matter lesions (WMLs) caused by small vessel disease are common in elderly people and contribute to cognitive impairment. There are no established biochemical markers for WMLs. We aimed to study the relation between degree of WMLs rated on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of structural biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia. Methods: Fifty-three non-demented elderly individuals with WMLs were subjected to lumbar puncture. Degree of WMLs was rated using the Fazekas scale. Volumetric assessment of WMLs was performed. CSF samples were analyzed for the 40 and 42 amino acid fragments of amyloid beta, alpha- and beta-cleaved soluble amyloid precursor protein, total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau(181)), neurofilament light protein (NFL), sulfatide and CSF/Serum-albumin ratio. Results: Fifteen subjects had mild, 23 had moderate and 15 had severe degree of WMLs. CSF-NFL levels differed between the groups (P < 0.001) and correlated with the volume of WMLs (r = 0.477, P < 0.001). CSF sulfatide concentration displayed similar changes but less strongly. T-tau, P-tau(181) and the different amyloid markers as well as CSF/S-albumin ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: The association of increased CSF-NFL levels with increasing severity of WMLs in non-demented subjects suggests that NFL is a marker for axonal damage in response to small vessel disease in the brain. This manifestation may be distinct from or earlier than the neurodegenerative process seen in AD, as reflected by the lack of association between WMLs and AD biomarkers.
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4.
  • Rolstad, Sindre, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-β₄₂ is associated with cognitive impairment in healthy elderly and subjective cognitive impairment.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimers Disorder. - 1387-2877. ; 26:1, s. 135-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to predict cognitive performance on the basis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers total tau (T-tau) and amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) in controls and patients at various impairment levels. Previous studies have found an association of CSF T-tau levels with cognitive symptoms, but it has been difficult to relate Aβ to cognition, and it has thus been hypothesized that Aβ reaches a plateau level prior to cognitive symptoms. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was subjected to factor analysis to yield aggregated cognitive domains. Linear regression models were performed for the total sample of the Gothenburg MCI study (n = 435) and for each level of impairment. Aβ42 and T-tau accounted for a significant proportion of performance in all cognitive domains in the total sample. In controls (n = 60) and patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 105), Aβ42 predicted a significant proportion of semantic and working memory performance. For patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 170), T-tau had the most pronounced impact across cognitive domains, and more specifically on episodic memory, visuospatial, and speed/executive performance. For patients with dementia (n = 100), the most pronounced impacts of Aβ42 were found in episodic memory and visuospatial functioning, while T-tau was substantially associated with episodic memory. Our results suggest that cognition is related to CSF biomarkers regardless of impairment level. Aβ42 is associated with cognitive functions from a potentially early to a later disease phase, and T-tau is more indicative of performance in a later disease phase.
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5.
  • Rolstad, Sindre, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • High Education May Offer Protection Against Tauopathy in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1875-8908. ; 21:1, s. 221-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concepts of brain and cognitive reserve stem from the observation that premorbid factors (e.g., education) result in variation in the response to brain pathology. Potential early influence of reserve on pathology, as assessed using the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers total tau and amyloid-beta{42}, and cognition was explored in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients who remained stable over a two-year period. A total of 102 patients with stable MCI grouped on the basis of educational level were compared with regard to biomarker concentrations and cognitive performance. Stable MCI patients with higher education had lower concentrations of t-tau as compared to those with lower education. Also, educational level predicted a significant proportion of the total variance in t-tau concentrations. Our results suggest that higher education may offer protection against tauopathy.
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6.
  • Sagare, Abhay P, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired Lipoprotein Receptor-Mediated Peripheral Binding of Plasma Amyloid-β is an Early Biomarker for Mild Cognitive Impairment Preceding Alzheimer's Disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1875-8908. ; 24:1, s. 25-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soluble circulating low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (sLRP) provides key plasma binding activity for Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). sLRP normally binds 70-90% of plasma Aβ preventing free Aβ access to the brain. In AD, Aβ binding to sLRP is compromised by increased levels of oxidized sLRP which does not bind Aβ. Here, we determined plasma oxidized sLRP and Aβ40/42 sLRP-bound, other proteins-bound and free plasma fractions, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau/Aβ42 ratios, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who progressed to AD (MCI-AD, n = 14), AD (n = 14) and neurologically healthy controls (n = 14) recruited from the Göteborg MCI study. In MCI-AD patients prior to conversion to AD and AD patients, the respective increases in oxidized sLRP and free plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were 4.9 and 3.7-fold, 1.8, and 1.7-fold and 4.3 and 3.3-fold (p < 0.05, ANOVA with Tuckey post-hoc test). In MCI-AD and AD patients increases in oxidized sLRP and free plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 correlated with increases in CSF tau/Aβ42 ratios and reductions in MMSE scores (p < 0.05, Pearson analysis). A heterogeneous group of 'stable' MCI patients that was followed over 2-4 years (n = 24) had normal CSF tau/Aβ42 ratios but increased oxidized sLRP levels (p < 0.05, Student's t test). Data suggests that a deficient sLRP-Aβ binding might precede and correlate later in disease with an increase in the tau/Aβ42 CSF ratio and global cognitive decline in MCI individuals converting into AD, and therefore is an early biomarker for AD-type dementia.
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7.
  • Thorvaldsson, Valgeir, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Memory in individuals with mild cognitive impairment in relation to APOE and CSF Abeta42.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics / IPA. - 1741-203X. ; 22:4, s. 598-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and low levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta-proteins 42 (Abeta) have previously been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in old age. In this study we examine the interaction of these markers with episodic memory in a sample identified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The sample (N = 149) was drawn from the Gothenburg MCI study and measured according to three free recall tests on three occasions spanning over four years. Second-order Latent Curve Models (LCM) were fitted to the data. RESULTS: Analyses accounting for age, gender, education, APOE, Abeta42, and interaction between APOE and Abeta42 revealed that the epsilon4 allele was significantly associated with level of memory performance in the presence of low Abeta42 values (< or = 452 ng/L). Associations between memory performance and Abeta42 were significant among the epsilon4 carriers but not among the non-carriers. The Abeta42 marker was, however, significantly associated with changes in memory over the study time period in the total sample. CONCLUSION: The findings support the hypothesis of an interactive effect of APOE and Abeta42 for memory decline in MCI patients.
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8.
  • Wallin, Anders, 1950-, et al. (författare)
  • Progression from mild to pronounced MCI is not associated with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker deviations.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. - 1421-9824. ; 32:3, s. 193-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aim: Detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker deviations improve prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. However, it is not settled whether the same pattern exists in patients progressing from very mild to more pronounced MCI. Given that neurodegenerative processes occur very early in the disease course, we also expected to find biomarker deviations in these patients. Methods: A total of 246 memory clinic patients with non-progressive (n = 161), progressive (n = 19), or converting (n = 66) MCI, 67 with stable dementia, and 80 controls were followed for 24 months. At baseline, CSF total tau (T-tau), β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ42) and the light subunit of neurofilament protein (NFL) were determined. Results: Patients with converting MCI and stable dementia had lower CSF Aβ42 concentrations and higher T-tau concentrations and NFL in comparison with controls and non-progressive/progressive MCI (p < 0.0005). No differences were found between progressive and non-progressive MCI. Conclusion: As expected, biomarker deviations predicted progression from MCI to dementia. Contrary to our hypothesis, progression from very mild MCI to more pronounced MCI was not reflected by biomarker deviations. The results suggest that the measured biomarkers are not early disease markers, or alternatively Alzheimer or vascular pathology is not the underlying cause in this patient group.
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9.
  • Öhrfelt Olsson, Annika, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Screening for new biomarkers for subcortical vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra. - 1664-5464. ; 1:1, s. 31-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Novel biomarkers are important for identifying as well as differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at an early stage in the disease process. Methods: In two independent cohorts, a multiplex immunoassay was utilized to analyze 90 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from dementia patients and patients at risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment). Results: The levels of several CSF proteins were increased in SVD and its incipient state, and in moderate-to-severe AD compared with the control group. In contrast, some CSF proteins were altered in AD, but not in SVD. The levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were consistently increased in all groups with dementia but only in some of their incipient states. Conclusions: In summary, these results support the notion that SVD and AD are driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms reflected in the CSF protein profile and that H-FABP in CSF is a general marker of neurodegeneration
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