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  • Montelius, Malin (författare)
  • Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl–) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl– and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl– and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl– and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.
  • Björnsson, Lovisa, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable Cereal Straw Management: Use as Feedstock for Emerging Biobased Industries or Cropland Soil Incorporation?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization. - : Springer. - 1877-2641.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sustainability goals regarding biobased chemicals and fuels can lead to increased demand for cereal straw, which could lead to undesirable effects on soil organic matter (SOM) content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of removing straw on SOM, using a life cycle approach based on agricultural statistics and soil carbon modelling. This regional evaluation in southern Sweden showed that the general restrictions on straw removal recommended in many European studies, with demands on the incorporation of at least half of the aboveground straw, is not an efficient means of SOM preservation. Unrestricted straw removal in combination with the cultivation of intermediate crops leads to a much higher SOM build-up. Such measures will increase the availability of removable straw 2.5 times, at little extra cost. The findings of this study demonstrate the necessity of regional evaluation, taking new findings on the impact of straw incorporation on SOM into consideration. This is important for both regional emerging biobased industries, where unnecessary restrictions on straw removal might hamper the development of new production pathways, and for future sustainability in agriculture, where well-intended but inefficient SOM preservation strategies might hinder the implementation of more efficient measures.
  • Cucarella Cabañas, Victor (författare)
  • Recycling Filter Substrates used for Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater as Soil Amendments
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis studied the viability of recycling filter substrates as soil amendments after being used in on-site systems for phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater. Focus was put on the materials Filtra P and Polonite, which are commercial products used in compact filters in Sweden. A prerequisite for this choice was to review filter materials and P sorption capacity. The filter substrates (Filtra P, Polonite and wollastonite tailings) were recycled from laboratory infiltration columns as soil amendments to a neutral agricultural soil and to an acid meadow soil to study their impacts on soil properties and yield of barley and ryegrass. The amendments tended to improve the yield and showed a liming effect, significantly increasing soil pH and the availability of P. In another experiment, samples of Filtra P and Polonite were equilibrated in batch experiments with the two soils in order to study the P dynamics in the soil-substrate system.  Batch equilibrations confirmed the liming potential of Filtra P and Polonite and showed that improved P availability in soils was strongly dependent on substrate P concentration, phase of sorbed P, and soil type. Finally, samples of Polonite used for household wastewater treatment were recycled as soil amendments to a mountain meadow and to an agricultural field for wheat cropping. The liming effect of Polonite was confirmed under field conditions and the results were similar to those of lime for the mountain meadow soil. However, the results were quite different for the agricultural field, where Polonite did not affect soil pH or any other chemical and physical soil properties investigated and had no impact on wheat yield and quality. The results from field experiments suggested that Polonite can be safely recycled to meadows and cropping fields at rates of 5-10 ton ha-1 but long-term studies are needed to forecast the effects of accumulation.
  • Enfors, Elin, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Yield and soil system changes from conservation tillage in dryland farming : A case study from North Eastern Tanzania
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Agricultural Water Management. - 0378-3774 .- 1873-2283. ; 98:11, s. 1687-1695
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Yield levels in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa are generally low. Water shortage in the root zone during critical crop development stages is a fundamental constraining factor. While there is ample evidence to show that conservation tillage can promote soil health, it has recently been suggested that the main benefit in semi-arid farming systems may in fact be an in situ water harvesting effect. In this paper we present the result from an on-farm conservation tillage experiment (combining ripping with mulch and manure application) that was carried out in northeastern Tanzania from 2005 to 2008, testing this hypothesis. Special attention was given to the effects on the water retention properties of the soil. The tested conservation treatment only had a clear yield increasing effect during one of the six experimental seasons (maize grain yields increased by 41%, and biomass by 65%), and this was a season that received exceptional amounts of rainfall (549 mm). While the other seasons provided mixed results, there seemed to be an increasing yield gap between the conservation tillage treatment and the control towards the end of the experiment. Regarding soil system changes, small but significant effects on chemical and microbiological properties, but not on physical properties, were observed. This raises questions about the suggested water harvesting effect and its potential to contribute to stabilized yield levels under semi-arid conditions. We conclude that, at least in a shorter time perspective, the tested type of conservation tillage seems to boost productivity during already good seasons, rather than stabilize harvests during poor rainfall seasons. Highlighting the challenges involved in upgrading these farming systems, we discuss the potential contribution of conservation tillage towards improved water availability in the crop root zone in a longer-term perspective.
  • Erhagen, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic soil CO2 production increases with increasing carbon substrate uptake rate
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0038-0717 .- 1879-3428. ; 80, s. 45-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Temperature profoundly affects saprotrophic respiration rates, and carbon quality theory predicts that the rates' temperature Sensitivity should increase as the quality of the carbon source declines. However, reported relationships between saprotrophic respiration responses to temperature and carbon quality vary widely. Some of this variability may arise from confounding effects related to both substrate quality and substrate availability. The importance of these variables, as well as substrate diffusion and uptake rates, for the temperature sensitivity of saprotrophic respiration has been validated theoretically, but not empirically demonstrated. Thus, we tested effects of varying substrate uptake rates on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon degradation. For this purpose we created a model system using the organic layer (O-horizon), of a boreal forest soil, specifically to test effects of varying monomer uptake and release rates. The addition of both monomers and polymers generally increased the temperature sensitivity of saprotrophic respiration. In response to added monomers, there was a linear increase in the temperature sensitivity of both substrate-induced respiration and the specific growth rate with increasing rate of substrate uptake as indicated by the CO2 production at 14 degrees C. Both of these responses diverge from those predicted by the carbon quality theory, but they provide the first empirical evidence consistent with model predictions demonstrating increased temperature sensitivity with increased uptake rate of carbon monomers over the cell membrane. These results may explain why organic material of higher carbon quality induces higher temperature responses than lower carbon quality compounds, without contradicting carbon quality theory. 
  • Geoinformatics 2004 : Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics : Geospatial Information Research : Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004
  • 2004
  • Proceedings (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • FOREWORD Geoinformatics 2004, the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics, is the premier research forum for Geospatial Information Research. It commenced in 1992 in Buffalo, and has been held every year since. Meetings have been held in North America and Asia in Beijing (1993), Calgary (1994), Hong Kong (1995), West Palm Beach (1996), Taipei (1997), Beijing (1998), Ann Arbor (1999), Monterey (2000), Bangkok (2001), Nanjing (2002), and Toronto (2003, cancelled due to the outbreak of SARS). This is the premier event organized by the University of Gävle, together with the Association of Chinese Professionals in Geographic Information Science (CPGIS-abroad).   This conference is the first of the series that takes place in Europe, hence the subtitle of the conference - bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. I believe it offers an opportunity for all professionals involved in research and development of geographic information systems, global position systems and remote sensing to discuss new theories and technologies around geoinformatics research.   Based on the extended abstracts and following advice from the program committee, the organizing committee selected 108 papers (involving 264 authors from 29 different countries) around 10 different themes included in the proceedings. The conference themes include some emerging research issues such as location-based services and geovisualization as well as long studied conventional issues. As a post-conference publication effort, some selected papers around special themes will go another round of review process to be published in special issues with some scientific journals.   The organization of the event is rather team-oriented work. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank CPGIS, the University of Gävle, our sponsors and all those individuals involved in making it a successful event, in particular, Kickan Fahlstedt, the conference secretary who took most administrative and organizational matters into her hands; Anders Brandt who read the papers and provided useful comments to the authors; Bengt Eriksson, Stig-Göran Mårtensson, and Bengt Rystedt who are always very supportive for the event; Peter Fisher and David Maguire who share their vision on current geoinformatics research; and all the authors who contribute with their papers of high quality.   Last but not least, the following colleagues or students deserve special thanks for their contributions to the organization of the conference: Gunter Göckelmann, Pia Ollert- Hallqvist, Anna Hansson, Neta Hedberg, Elisabeth Hugg, Mikael Johansson, Rebecca Jonsson, Hendrik Loch, Bengt-Olof Lundinger, Staffan Nygren, Kaj Wejander, and Wenjun Xie.   Welcome to the Geoinformatics 2004, and enjoy your stay in Gävle!   Bin Jiang Co-chair of the organizing committee   ---   CONTENTS - VOLUME 1 Keynote session The logic of fuzzy detecting change in geographical information, p. 3 P. Fisher Distributed GIS: computing in the internet age, p. 4 D. Maguire Plenary session About egocentric geovisualisation, p. 7 L. Meng Shannonian, semantic and pragmatic geoinformation, p. 15 J. Portugali Spatio-temporal modelling and analysis of geolifelines, p. 22 C. Claramunt Location-based service, mobile GIS and GPS Location-based solutions for application services, p. 25 K.H. Kim, S.G. Hong, J.H. Park and J.H. Lee A test-bed simulator for GPS and GIS integrated navigation and positioning research: - bus positioning, using GPS observations, odometer readings and map matching, p. 31 J. Li, G. Taylor, C. Brunsdon, A. Olden, D. Steup and M. Winter Real-time map labelling for personal navigation, p.  39 Q. Zhang and L. Harrie Multi-criteria decision analysis for location based services, p.  47 M. Raubal and C. Rinner Map generalization for OSMasterMap data in location based services & mobile GIS applications, p. 54 S. Anand, J.M. Ware and G.E. Taylor The media and the messages of location-based services (LBS): death of distance or the revenge of geography?, p. 61 D.Z. Sui Real time community mapping: evaluating two wireless technology approaches, p. 69 Y. Lao Digital data collection and analysis techniques for forestry applications, p. 77 M.G. Wing and L.D. Kellogg A review of research and development on intelligent transport systems in Hong Kong - a geographic information system perspective, p. 84 W.Z. Shi and H.K. Lam A distributed architecture for WAP-based mobile GIS, p. 92 Wang F., Bian F. and Hou Y. Efficient routing service for the open LBS services, p. 99 S.-S. Kim and J.-H. Park Network perspective for spatial data distribution on wireless environments, p. 107 E. Lee, M.-J. Kim, M. Kim and B.-T. Jang Precise navigation with the use of buffer zones, p. 115 A. Banachowicz and J. Uriasz The implementation of presentation service using JAVA web services, p. 120 T.-W. Heo and J.-H. Park An open architecture of common core component for location based service, p. 127 J.-C. Kim, J.-H. Park and J.-H. Lee Open LBS solution architecture using service chaining webservices technology, p. 134 S.-G. Hong, K.-H. Kim and J.-H. Park Analysis accuracy integrated position of hyperbolic system JEMIOLUSZKA and satellite navigation system GPS, p. 139 A. Banachowicz and R. Kamiński Spatio-temporal modelling and databases A web-based multimedia framework for diffusing spatio-temporal information: application to natural hazards, p. 149 P-A. Davoine, J. Gensel and H. Martin Continuous data warehouse: concepts, challenges and potentials, p. 157 T.O. Ahmed, M. Miquel and R. Laurini An extended locking method for geographical database with spatial rules, p. 165 Cheng C., Shen P., Zhang M. and Lu F. A hybrid approach to detect spatial-temporal outliers, p. 173 T. Cheng and Z. Li A knowledge-based restricted problem solving method in GIS applications, p. 179 Wei H., Xu Q. and Bai Y. Representation of moving objects along a road network, p. 187 N. Van de Weghe, A.G. Cohn, P. Bogaert and P. De Maeyer A three-dimensional temporal GIS for the analysis of morphometric changes, p. 195 M. Sriti, R. Thibaud and C. Claramunt Quality assessment and uncertainty handling in spatial data mining, p. 203 B. He, T. Fang and D. Guo From the schema matching to the integration of updating information into user geographic databases, p. 211 A. Braun Construction and specification of spatial configurations in a geographical information retrieval context, p. 219 M. Ould Ahmed Limam and M. Gaio A new tetrahedral network (TEN) generation algorithm for 3-D GIS, p. 226 Song Z., Liu Y. and Niu W. GIS data modeling of 17th century fortresses on Dardanelles, p. 233 C. Guney, B. Yuksel and R.N. Celik The spatial data server based on open GIS standards in heterogeneous distributed environment, p. 241 M.-J. Kim, E. Lee, B.-W. Oh and M. Kim Vector cellular automata based geographical entity, p. 249 Hu S. and Li D. A method for testing low-value spatial clustering, p. 257 G. Lin and T. Zhang Research on Petri Net based spatiotemporal data model, p. 265 Yin Z. and Li L. Advances in earth observation technologies Lossless inter-array predictive coding for subpixel-shifted satellite images based on texture analysis, p. 275 Gao S., Zhang X.J. and Sun W.D. Visualizing distributions from multi-return lidar data to understand forest structure, p. 283 D. Kao, M. Kramer, A. Love, J. Dungan and A. Pang 3D scanning and photogrammetry for heritage recording: a comparison, p. 291 W. Boehler and A. Marbs On modelling and visualisation of high resolution virtual environments using LIDAR data, p. 299 S. Ahlberg, U. Söderman, M. Elmqvist and Å. Persson The utilization of GPR data in GIS, p.  307 Chen B.Z., Hu Z.Q. and Li W.D. APIAS - Airborne photos and images attainment system, p. 311 J.C.C. Gonçalves Junior, E.C. Piovesan, G.C. Silveira and E.A. Silva Geovisualisation Representation of geographic terrain surface using global indexing, p. 321 J. Kolar Geo-visualization support for multidimensional clustering, p. 329 G. Andrienko and N. Andrienko Annotated observations as knowledge construction elements in visual data analysis, p. 336 I. Denisovich 3D geovisualization as a communication and analysis tool in fluvial geomorphology, p. 339 S.A. Brandt and B. Jiang A study on algorithms of a 3D visualization dynamic modification system based on TIN, p. 347 P. Yang, H. Lin, S.J. Mao and D. Shen A multi-user mobile system to visualize environmental processes, p. 355 J. Danado, E. Dias, T. Romão, N. Correia, A. Trabuco, C. Santos, J. Serpa, M. Costa and A. Câmara Interacting with 17th century fortresses on Dardanelles through web-based geo-visualization, p. 363 C. Guney and R.N. Celik Visualization of landscape data in digital maps by exclusive use of XML-based languages, p. 370 K. Neumann, P. Ahlbrecht, S. Eckstein, B. Mathiak and A. Kupfer Embedding digital rights in geovisualizations, p. 375 J. Döllner Experimental research on web-based 3D terrain visualization - using Java3D and Microsoft.Net, p. 383 Wang Y., Tan H. and Liu J. The principles of designing CIS - cartographic information system, p. 389 Zheng S. and Chen Y. A network common data form (NetCDF) utility for efficient environmental data processing and visualization, p. 397 J. Liu, J.M. Chen, D.T. Price, and S. Liu Design and implementation of high precision map symbol library based on GDI+, p. 405 Wu X., Du Q., Cai Z. and Xu Z. User-centered 3D geovisualisation, p. 412 A. Nielsen Studying groundwater resource by volume visualization technology, p. 417 Zhu G., Xu Z., Wu X. and Yan H. Cognition theory-based research on adaptive user interface for GEO-visualization system, p. 424 Ling Y., Chen Y. and Wang Y.   CONTENTS - VOLUME 2 GIS in urban planning and modelling Spatial patterns of urban growth in Nepal: a GIS-assisted analysis, p. 435 M. Adhikari, B.A. Portnov and M. Schwartz What's planning (support system design)?, p. 443 M. Campagna and G. Deplano GIS and remote sensing for urban planning: a case of Festac town, Lagos, Nigeria, p. 451 M.J. Fasona and A.S. Omojola Geographical information systems on the web for public participation in planning, p. 459 O. Gudes, E. Stern and T. Svoray Study on China National Park planning supported by spatial information technology, p. 464 Dang A., Liu X., Yang R. and Zhuang Y. Uncertainty and data quality Uncertainty evaluation of military terrain analysis results by simulation and visualization, p. 473 P. Horttanainen and K.Virrantaus Defuzzification operators for geographical data of nominal scale, p. 481 T. Hatzichristos and J. Potamias Fuzzy model and Kriging for imprecise soil polygon boundaries, p. 489 R. Sunila, E. Laine and O. Kremenova Fuzzy description of fuzzy direction relations and their similarities, p. 496 Du S., Wang Q. and Yang Y. A new approach for modeling uncertainty in remote sensing change detection process, p. 503 A. Alimohammadi, H.R. Rabiei and P.Z. Firouzabadi GIS in environmental management and decision making Mapping landslide susceptibility in the Three Gorges area, China using GIS, expert systems and fuzzy logic, p. 511 A-X. Zhu, R. Wang, J. Qiao, Y. Chen, Q. Cai and C. Zhou A 3D GIS for managing building rehabilitation process, p. 518 F. Ramos, D. Siret and M. Musy Spatial-temporal carbon sequestration under land USE and land cover change, p. 525 S. Liu, J. Liu and T.R. Loveland GIS based analysis of store closure: a case study of an Office Depot store in Cincinnati, p. 533 Y. Xu and L. Liu Branch bank closures in Sydney: a geographical perspective and analysis, p. 541 L. Zhao, B. Garner and B. Parolin Integration of multidisciplinary knowledge and modelling techniques for a river-SDSS, p. 549 J. Möltgen and G. Schmidt Applications of GIS and RS for land use dynamics monitoring in the rim zone of North China, p. 557 Z. Qin, B. Xu, J. Liu and W. Zhang A methodology for siting a water harvesting reservoir, p. 565 W.M. Jabre and F.A. Awar Landscape indices for comparison of spatial forest patterns in different geographical regions, p. 573 E.M. De Clercq and R.R. De Wulf GIS in spatial management on a local level of administration in Poland, p. 578 P. Fogel and J. Fiszczuk-Wiktorowicz Development of spatial GIS database for monitoring on dynamic state of grassland productivity, p. 585 and animal loading balance in Northern China B. Xu, X. Xin, Z. Qin, H. Liu, Z. Chen, G. Yang, W. Wu, Q. Zhou and X. Wu Remote sensing coupled to a database of catchments and coastal zones, p. 593 S.G. Halldórsdóttir and H. Þorbergsson Regionalization of N2O measurements for the North China Plain, p. 599 G. Bareth and M. Kogge Application of RS and GIS in ecological environmental dynamic monitoring and management information system, p. 607 Liao K. Geospatial cancer analysis for the state of Santa Catarina, brazil - environmental parameters considered, p. 615 C.E. Hübner and F.H. Oliveira Information extraction from remote sensing data Object-based updating of land-use maps of urban areas using satellite remote sensing, p. 623 R.J. Dekker Multiscale object-specific analysis: scale problems and multiscale solutions, p. 631 O. Hall, G.J. Hay and D.J. Marceau A greedy point algorithm derived by Gabor filter bank for IKONOS satellite image segmentation, p. 639 N. Nezamoddini-Kachouie and J. Alirezaie A modeling-based threshold approach to derive change/no change information over vegetation area, p. 647 Y. Hu, S.M. de Jong and R. Sluiter A neural network approach for information extraction from remotely sensed data, p. 655 J. Liu, G. Shao, H. Zhu and S. Liu New stereo matching and 3D view generation algorithms using aerial stereo images, p. 663 J.-C. Kim and J.-H. Park Comparison of remote sensing based analysis of crop diseases by using high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral data - case study: Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet -, p. 670 R. Laudien, G. Bareth and R. Doluschitz A comparison of land-use classification with sampled IKONOS and TM imagery, p. 677 Tang Z. and Zhu L. Quality study of ASTER data geometry by digitize contour lines in ILWIS, p. 683 A. Partovi, K. Grabmaier and J. Hendrikse A new algorithm for map projection reverse transformation in GIS, p. 691 Teng J., Huang W. and Sun M. Exploitation of geospatial techniques for studying the snow and water runoff parameters, p. 699 A.S. Almas, M. Azam, M.J. Butt and S. Amer Land cover mapping of Khulna City applying remote sensing technique, p. 707 M. Billah and G.A. Rahman Integration of ground sampling with satellite imaging through GIS database to monitor rangeland productivity for grazing in north China, p.  715 Z. Qin, B. Xu, W. Li, W. Zhang and J. Liu Forestry inventory and information systems in developing countries: constraints and benefits, p. 723 S.M. Malaza, P.G. Abbot and S. Mabena Multi-scale representation and generalisation Building a multi-granularity based spatial database, p. 733 Cheng C. and Lu F. Automated generalisation in a multiple representation database, p. 741 M. Dunkars Data update across multi-scale databases, p. 749 H.-K. Kang, J.-W. Moon and K.-J. Li Modelling urban road networks integrating multiple representations of complex road and junction structures, p. 757 N.N. Ulugtekin, A.O. Dogru and R.C. Thomson Streaming of compressed multi-resolution geographic vector data, p. 765 J. Persson Metadata and spatial data infrastructure A hierarchical framework to aid the entry of metadata, p. 775 J.-H. Hong, Y.-H. Chen and H.-P. Liao Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge - using Bloom's taxonomy to evaluate non-professional users' understanding of GI, p. 783 M. Arleth Opportunities and challenges for SDI development in developing countries - a case study of, p. 789 Uganda M. Musinguzi, G. Bax and S.S. Tickodri-Togboa SDI and network-based GIS for disaster management, p. 797 A. Mansourian, A. Rajabifard and M.J.V. Zoej Discovering structure in geographical metadata, p. 805 I. Podolak and U. Demšar Map interface valid coverage analysis based on XML metadata, p. 812 H.-P. Liao and J.-H. Hong A cadastral domain model, p. 820 J.M. Paasch
  • Nilsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Computer classification of General Habitat Categories by combining LiDAR and SPOT data
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • General Habitat Categories (GHC) is a classification scheme developed in BioHab1, 2 and a central concept in EBONE3. A characteristic of GHC is plant height, which can be derived using Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data. Computer classification of GHCs might be improved by combining spectral information in optical satellite data with LiDAR. The aim of this pilot study was to investi­gate to which degree airborne LiDAR improves SPOT data based classification of a selection of GHCs in a for­est area in southern Sweden. Lat. 58° 30’ N Long 13° 40’ E. Managed forest with Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea Abies) and birch (Betula spp). A SPOT 5 HRG XS scene. Airborne LiDAR data with an average point density of 26 returns/m2. Photo interpretation of GHCs, 585 sample plots, in aerial DMC images. Combining LiDAR and SPOT data shows promise, considering the restrictions to this study. In a similar study, using the same dataset for classifying CORINE land cover types, overall accuracy increased from 67.1% to 77.6% when add­ing LiDAR data4. This means that there is potential, though the methods need improvement and further tests should include a larger test area providing adequate amounts of sample plots per GHC.
  • Nilsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of earth observation data and in situ data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS)
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Integration of in situ data and earth observation (EO) data for estimating the occurrence of different habitat or classes can be achieved using different approaches. In this study, the approach used is to post-stratify in situ data using existing land cover maps derived from satellite data. Photo-interpreted landscape elements and biotopes from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS; http://nils.slu.se/) were used as in situ data. The mapped landscape elements and biotopes were classified into General Habitat Categories (GHCs). Five of the GHCs were selected to exemplify how the precision of their area estimates was affected by using post-stratification, as compared to area estimates of the GHCs based on the photo-interpreted data alone. The stratification was made using the Swedish version of Corine land cover (SMD) which includes more classes and has a higher spatial resolution (1-25 ha minimum mapping unit depending on the class) than the European version of Corine land cover (CLC). The results show that the standard error was reduced substantially for all tested GHCs using post-stratification in comparison to the errors obtained without post-stratification. This shows the potential to derive improved area statistics of habitat categories by integrating in situ data with existing land cover maps.
  • Norberg, Peter (författare)
  • Slutrapport IndustriHampa-X
  • 2006
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Projektet IndustriHampa-X har syftat till att initiera odling och förädling av industrihampa i Gävleborgs län under 2005 och 2006. Projektet har utgjort ett första steg i en utveckling som på sikt syftar till att vända den negativa trenden inom lantbruket och bidra till en ökad optimism, en ökad självförsörjningsgrad av råvaror och energi samt en ökad lokal förädling av och avsättning för lantbrukets produkter. Hampan är endast en gröda bland många som bedöms få stor efterfrågan i framtiden och som bör ingå i växtföljden i framtidens jordbruk, antingen det är konventionellt eller ekologiskt. Under 2005 odlades hampa på totalt 58 ha i Gävleborgs län. Ca 12 ha har odlats med fröhampa medan resten har odlats med fiber-/energihampa. Under 2006 har totalt ca 43 ha odlats varav 16 ha med fröhampa. För odlingsåret 2005 samarbetade projektet med Råsjö torv/SÅBI. Genom detta samarbete kunde den ekonomiska risken för lantbrukarna minimeras och därmed ge dem en möjlighet att på ett smidigt sätt odla och på nära håll bekanta sig med hampan. Arrangemanget innebar även att lantbrukaren fick fritt utsäde, ett köpekontrakt för att kunna bli berättigad till gårdsstödet samt, inte minst, att få skörden bärgad. Skördearbetet blev starkt försenat på grund av den snörika och långa vintern, vilket gjorde att utfallet blev sämre än förväntat. På större arealer (> 3 ha) blev skörden ca 4 ton per ha, medan den på mindre fält kunde variera kraftigt, från 0.7 till 5.8 ton per ha. Förseningen av skörden gjorde även att det mesta av den odlade hamparealen tråkigt nog hamnade i träda under 2006. Skörd av fröhampa genomfördes enligt planerna i slutet av september 2005 och blev mycket lyckosam med mer än 1 ton torkade frön per ha. Försök med utfodring av bl a mjölkkor visar preliminärt att hampfrökakan mycket väl kan ersätta t ex sojamjöl som kraftfoder. Fiberberedningsförsök har genomförts eller är på väg att genomföras med stjälkar som skördats vid olika tidpunkter under hösten 2005. Avsikten har varit att visa om det finns möjligheter att förenkla skördearbetet och hanteringen av stjälkarna så att den traditionella rötningen på fälten kan undvikas och ersättas av ett optimalt val av skördetidpunkt samt införande av artificiell torkning. Hampan som energigröda har ännu inte utvärderats i stor skala med det skördade materialet som tagits on hand av Neova (f d Råsjö torv/SÅBI). Däremot har laboratorietester enligt gängse standarder på området genomförts. Dessa visar att hampan i allt väsentligt är ett mycket bra bränsle som i olika former och utföranden skulle kunna ingå i lokalproducerade bränslen lämpliga för allt från pelletpannor i villor till större system där typiskt ett närvärmeverk skulle kunna vara mottagare av bränslet i lämplig form. Projektet har även försökt att få ett grepp om vilka befintliga industrier som skulle kunna bli mottagare och förädlare av hampans olika råvaror men även av andra grödor som kan finna sig väl tillrätta i en växtföljd där hampan ingår. Den mest intressanta tillämpningen vore antagligen olika former av isolermaterial för byggindustrin. Odling av oljeväxter har även kommit i ropet på senare tid och är kanske främst relaterad till möjligheterna att ersätta fossilt dieselbränsle med rapsmetylester eller t o m ren rapsolja utan omförestring. Lämpliga siloanläggningar att utgå ifrån finns i både Österfärnebo och Kungsgården. Projektet har även inhämtat kunskaper och erfarenheter från andra projekt och verksamheter i Sverige och utomlands. Dessa kontakter är mycket värdefulla inför fortsättningen av de olika aktiviteter som planeras på hampområdet under kommande år. Glädjande nog har samhällsutvecklingen i stort vid upprepade tillfällen bara under det gångna året visat att de strävanden som projektet IndustriHampa-X ger uttryck för i allt väsentligt ligger rätt i tiden. Förhoppningen är därför att ett antal av länets nyckelaktörer inom energi, restproduktshantering, fiberindustri mm tillsammans med länets lantbrukare ska kunna finna hållbara lösningar på de utvecklingsmöjligheter som står till buds. Detta kommer med nödvändighet att handla om att verka för ökad småskalighet och ökad grad av lokal förädling och försäljning av lantbruksrelaterade produkter och tjänster till det omgivande samhället. Denna utveckling kommer även att understödjas av de skeenden som står för dörren med bl a höjda energipriser och minskande tillgång på fossila råvaror.
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